Alain Aspect Alain Aspect

Alain Aspect is an alumnus of Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan (now ENS Paris-Saclay) and Université d'Orsay (now Université Paris-Saclay. An emeritus distinguished scientist at CNRS, he is a professor at Institut d'Optique Graduate School (Université Paris-Saclay), and at Ecole Polytechnique, and author of textbooks and MOOCS on quantum optics. He is a member of several science academies (France, USA, UK, Austria, Belgium, Italy) and has received many prestigious international prizes. Alain Aspect research has been devoted to experimental studies of quantum properties of light and ultra-cold atoms, at the root of quantum technologies.

Photo Credit: Jean-François Dars.

Conférence : Is quantum randomness a fundamental property or a technological resource?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 13h45 - 14h30 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

The randomness of quantum predictions seems absolutely fundamental to avoid the violation of operational relativistic causality. As a result, it offers a unique technological resource in the field of random number generators. This will lead me to answer "both" to the question, leaving the listener to choose among these characteristics, which seem to me to be as fascinating one as the other.

Table ronde : Quelle est la part du hasard dans les découvertes ?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Alexei Grinbaum Alexei Grinbaum
Philosopher and physicist

Alexei Grinbaum, Ph.D., HDR, is a physicist and philosopher at LARSIM, the Philosophy of Science Group at CEA-Saclay near Paris. His main interest is in the foundations of quantum theory. He also writes on the ethical and social aspects of emerging technologies, including nanotechnology, synthetic biology, robotics and artificial intelligence. He was coordinator for France of the "European Observatory of Nanotechnologies" and partner in the project “Responsible Research and Innovation in Practice”. Grinbaum is a member of the French national ethics committee for digital technologies and AI as well as of the French ethics commission for research in information technology (Cerna). His books include "Mécanique des étreintes" (2014) and "Les robots et le mal" (2019).

Conférence : Can the coin toss save a robot from harm?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 11h30 - 12h15 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Deep learning techniques lead to fundamentally non-interpretable decisions made by the machine. Although such choices do not have an explanation, they impact the users in significant ways. If the ultimate innovator is a machine, what is the meaning of responsible conduct? I argue in a recent book that the capacity to extract an AI system from human judgment, by reducing transparency in favor of opacity, is an essential value in machine ethics. This can be achieved through the use of randomness, illustrated on several examples including the trolley dilemma. Methodologically, a comparison of common motives between technological setups and mythological narratives is used to achieve ethical insights.

Dédicace : Robots and evil
Friday 2 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30

Amaury Lambert Amaury Lambert
Teacher-researcher in mathematics and biology

Amaury Lambert is a polytechnician and has a PhD in mathematics from the University Pierre et Marie Curie. He was a lecturer from 2001 to 2008 and has been a university professor since 2008. He teaches mathematics in the mathematics department of Sorbonne University and ecology and evolutionary biology in the biology department of the École Normale Supérieure. In 2012, he founded an interdisciplinary research team hosted at the Collège de France and working at the interface of mathematical modeling and evolutionary biology, called SMILE - "Stochastic Models for the Inference of Life Evolution". This team brings together mathematicians and biologists interested in the modeling and inference of evolutionary processes at various scales of time, space and taxonomy, ranging from population genetics to epidemiology and ecology, as well as from somatic evolution to macroevolution.

Conférence : Is cancer a matter of bad luck?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 16h45 - 17h30 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

When a cancer appears, can we attribute its origin to bad luck, that is to say to endogenous causes proper to the development and natural regeneration of tissues? On the contrary, should hereditary predispositions or a toxic environment be held responsible? Can we quantify the role of each of these three contributions in all types of cancer? We will examine how mathematical or statistical models of tumor formation can attempt to answer these questions and what the available data tell us about them.

Anca Cristofovici Anca Cristofovici
Professor and Writer

Anca Cristofovici is a professor of American literature and arts at the University of Caen, where she directed the Center for Cultural Memory Studies (ERIBIA) for ten years. Her studies on American literature and on photography have appeared in volumes and journals in Europe and the United States, and she is the author of John Hawkes. L’enfant et le cannibale (Paris, 1997) and Touching Surfaces. Photographic Aesthetics, Temporality, Aging (New York/Amsterdam, 2009), and co-editor of The Art of Collaboration. Artists, Poets, Books (Victoria, Texas, 2015). Her work has been distinguished with grants from the Rockefeller Foundation, the Terra Foundation for American Art, and The British Academy, and she held research positions at The Center for Twentieth-Century Studies, University of Wisconsin and The Simpson Center for the Humanities, University of Washington, Seattle. As a writer, Cristofovici has published fiction in English and contributed to international collaborative projects, among which an installation exhibited at the collateral shows of the Venice Biennale. Her novel, Stela, published in the United States in 2015, has been presented at numerous venues and is on the program of the course “Literature & politics” at the School for Political Sciences in Lille.

Conférence : Is the moment decisive in photography?
Friday 2 july 2021, 11h30 - 12h15 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

This paper proposes an exploration of the ways in which photography can participate in a better understanding of the multiple — and sometimes contrasting — implications of the notion of « chance ». Taking distance from the phrase « the decisive moment », once used by photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson and subsequently much quoted but rarely contextualized, we will discuss the tension between deliberate choice and accident in several areas: episodes of the invention of photography; photographic practices (capturing images, choosing a specific image from a series of many on a contact sheet); the circulation and cultural uses of one photographic image on a variety of supports and in a variety of contexts. Added to these areas, a reference to Richard Powers’s Three Farmers on Their Way to A Dance (1985) — a novel inspired by a photograph by August Sander — will contribute to fleshing out the main argument of the paper, which emerges from questions such as: the role of agency and chance in the creative process; effects and formal possibilities opened up by accidents; deliberate and accidental choice of images in the construction of cultural representations.

Dédicace : Touching Surfaces: Photographic Aesthetics, Temporality, Aging
Friday 2 july 2021, 12h15 - 13h

Andràs Paldi Andràs Paldi
Researcher in Epigenetics

Andras Paldi is biochemist and geneticist. He is professor at the École Pratique des Hautes Études in Paris. His research focuses on epigenetics and cell differentiation. He is working on the biological role of stochastic fluctuations of gene expression and the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms and the energetic metabolism in the process of hematopoietic cell differentiation.

Conférence : Is cellular order based on molecular stochasticity?
Friday 2 july 2021, 10h - 10h45 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

The living cell is frequently compared to an assembly of tiny molecular machines that functions in a perfectly ordered way. Similarly, cell differentiation, that constitutes the basis of embryonal development also considered as a tightly regulated programmed process. However, the “cell-machine” metaphor is not supported by empirical evidence. At the molecular scale, molecular disorder is dominant in the cell. Traffic and interactions between individual molecules and the resulting chemical transformations are all random. However, given the probabilistic nature of biochemical reactions, how the molecular chaos can give rise to the cellular order? The individual molecular events are random, but they are also very short lived compared to cellular processes. The regular functioning at the structural- and time-scale of the cell is generated by the huge number of high frequency and short-lived molecular interactions. This principle is well known in physics, but it is still new in biology. Thinking of the cell as a manifestation of the principle of “order from disorder” has strong theoretical and practical implications; it allows to get rid of the hidden finalism frequently observed in biology.

Anissa Guillemin Anissa Guillemin
Researcher in cell biology

Anissa Guillemin completed her PhD at the Laboratory of Cell Biology and Modeling in Lyon in the team of Dr Olivier Gandrillon. She studied the effect of an artificial change in the level of randomness during the specialization of cells into red blood cells. Her first postdoctoral position was at the University of Melbourne in Australia in the team of Pr Michael Stumpf where she learned to model biological processes by taking into account stochastic terms. She returned to France a few months ago to apply this knowledge and know-how to the understanding of the body's defense system. She works at the Laboratory of Cell Biology and Modeling in Lyon in the team of Dr. Emiliano Ricci. She is currently studying the variations of protein synthesis during innate immunity.

Conférence : Do cells use chance as a catalyst?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 10h - 10h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

A few decades ago, evidence for the existence of randomness in biological processes emerged. This randomness is inherent in the molecular mechanisms that take place within the cellular machinery, and thus, it participates in shaping living beings. This unprecedented discovery calls into question the still very present notion of genetic program. Indeed, the main consequence of molecular variability is the heterogeneity that exists within genetically identical cells placed in the same environment: neighboring cells are not identical. Recently, new studies have shown that the level of this heterogeneity is directly linked to the course of certain processes and that this source of variability is essential to the living world. So can this randomness be seen as an essential catalyst for biological processes?

Anna Zielinska Anna Zielinska

Anna C. Zielinska is, since 2017, a lecturer at the University of Lorraine, where she specializes in moral philosophy, philosophy of law and political philosophy; she also teaches at Sciences Po Paris/Nancy. She has published numerous articles on metaethics, on law and on normativities related to medicine (ethical, political, scientific and anthropological, also in collaboration with I. Löwy, S. Venkatapuram and P. Singer). She is author or editor of volumes such as Drugs: order and disorder (with N. Le Blanc, Mouvements 86, 2016/2), a dossier Cancer research. Un champ privilégié pour penser les rapports entre hasard, réductionnisme et holisme (Médecine/sciences 2014; 30, with T. Issad), Textes-clés de métaéthique (Vrin, 2013), or Repenser les rapports entre sciences et philosophie (Recherches sur la Philosophie et le Langage, 29/2013). She is a member of the Archives Henri Poincaré and of the Independent Resource Group for Global Health Justice (IRG-GHJ).

Conférence : Does access to care suffer from geographic randomness?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

A large part of our life depends on chance. First historical and geographical, then genetic, social and environmental. Much of what we feel we have achieved, that we have done because of our abilities and hard work, is largely due to a set of circumstances in which we were placed by chance. The naive belief that "nothing happens by chance" helps to make sense of suffering, but also to get rid of the guilt of having been "lucky. Because there is something unbearable about the idea of chance in the moral or political context. The Covid pandemic19 has shown these differences all the more forcefully when the same disease has affected the whole planet, and when not all its inhabitants have equal access to the tools to fight the virus and its consequences. Can we continue as before, when we have realized the strength of the ties we have with the other inhabitants of the planet, giving content to the slogan repeated by all the institutions involved in the fight against Covid19 : "None of us will be safe until everyone is safe"? In this presentation, I would like to examine the answers put forward by political and moral philosophy, especially in discussions of access to health care and vaccines, emphasizing the need to think both in terms of equality of distribution and health sovereignty.

Anne Duprat Anne Duprat
Professor and Writer

Anne Duprat is Professor of Comparative Literature at the University of Picardie Jules Verne, essayist and translator. She is director of the CERCLL (EA4283) and Senior Member of the IUF. Specialist in fiction theory and European literature of the 16th and 17th centuries, she is notably the author of Vraisemblances. Poétiques de la fiction en France et en Italie (Champion, 2009), Fiction et cultures (dir., with F. Lavocat, Paris, 2010), Histoires et savoirs. Anecdotes scientifiques aux XVIe et XVIIe siècles (dir., with F. Aït-Touati, Peter Lang, 2012) and Romanesques noirs 1750-1850 (dir., with L. Ruiz and M. Hersant, Garnier, 2019). She is currently leading the ALEA project ("Figurations/Configurations artificielles du hasard"), funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR-19-CE27-0006).

Anne-Flore Lewi Anne-Flore Lewi
Digital Marketing Specialist

Marketing consultant and digital marketing specialist, Anne-Flore Lewi has been accompanying Timeworld since 2019. In charge of digital strategy and marketing partnerships, she coordinates the marketing and communication operations of the congress throughout the year.

Anne Marchais-Roubelat Anne Marchais-Roubelat
Researcher in management sciences

Anne Marchais-Roubelat is an HDR lecturer in management sciences at the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers. Her research focuses on the processes of decision, action and transformation of public and private organizations. She is a member of the strategy, prospective, innovation and development team of the Cnam's Interdisciplinary Laboratory in Action Sciences. She is also a member of the editorial boards of the journals Flux and Prospective et Stratégie. She has notably published in the journals Futures, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Foresight, Management & Avenir, Society and Business Review, Public Ethics. Her most recent publications focus on the construction of prospective scenarios for strategic action, on the creativity of time, and on governance issues in fair trade certification processes. She is the author of two books on decision and action processes.

Conférence : Can chance be managed?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h - 10h45 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Today, chance evokes gambling, the search for strong emotions, the lure of winning and even the ultimate feeling of living. Chance is then of the order of the living and the emotion. In management, we don't talk about chance, we talk about risk. Risk is a probability, so it is a rational calculation. More precisely, it is the probability that an event will occur, the consequences of which are feared. Risk management is based on a simple principle: we evaluate the probability that the problem will occur, we quantify the damage it may cause, and we look for solutions that cost less. Risk management has developed in many areas: we can think primarily of production, where we can avoid accidents to people, but we can also manage financial risk or legal and social risks, for example. However, the calculation of probabilities often lags behind what organizations experience. Chance, when it combines events and human actions, is also present in the effects of crisis on organizations; a one-off crisis, or a crisis that lasts according to the evolution and exchanges of living beings. In the face of crises, proven methods of risk management are not suitable, because chance is precisely out of the question. But if chance can provoke crisis, it provokes above all new forms and figures, and for those who are aware of it in time, it can be a source of opportunities, creativity and innovation, which are also outside the field of risk management. Thus, if chance is linked to the game of life and emotion, it is also because it causes a hitherto controllable universe to leave - at least in appearance - through the emergence of another universe in the making and whose rules we do not know. Chance provokes irreversibility, and in this it is opposed to risk management, whose main function is, on the contrary, to maintain the status quo. With the irruption of chance in its management, the organization has to face evolutions that frighten because they change routines and solutions to the established efficiency. Contrary to change projects, chance cannot be controlled or decided upon, it arises by issuing a challenge, and the art lies in anticipating in time the new rules of the game it imposes.

Anne Odru Anne Odru

Anne Odru’s natural curiosity and outgoing personality have been strengths in her career. She was initially drawn to science and began a program of study in biology, which led her to discover scientific journalism. Telling and sharing stories became her priority, so she decided to pursue an education in journalism, with a focus on audiovisual media. Today, she works in that field. She loves travelling and discovering the world, and she is passionate about sharing her adventures and stories through writing and pictures with anyone interested.

Ariles Remaki Ariles Remaki
PhD student in history and philosophy of sciences

Ariles Remaki is a PhD student in history and philosophy of sciences at the Sphère laboratory (Université de Paris). Graduated from a master's degree in advanced mathematics at the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, in the field of probability, he started a thesis in 2017 on the epistemological status of combinatorics within the work of the German philosopher G.W. Leibniz. He is particularly interested in questions relating to discovery methods and the explanatory role of induction in the field of combinations.

Arnaud Gallant Arnaud Gallant
PhD student in plasma physics

Arnaud est doctorant CNRS en physique des plasmas au laboratoire EM2C de l'école CentraleSupélec. Sa recherche porte sur une technique de dissociation énergétiquement sobre du diazote par des plasmas. La réalité de son travail est partagée entre des expériences, notamment d'optique (spectroscopie, laser) et l'utilisation de code pour interpréter ses résultats. Arnaud est aussi bénévole dans plusieurs associations sur des thématiques qui lui tiennent à cœur : aider les jeunes chercheurs à bâtir leur carrière avec Careers and Doctors, partager l'excitante aventure du spatial avec SpaceCon et travailler sur la transition écologique avec le Shift Project.

Baptiste Xirau Baptiste Xirau
Master's degree in Urban Policy

Baptiste Xirau is currently doing a master's degree in Urban Policy at Sciences Po Paris. After two years following the double degree Philosophy-Social Sciences at Sciences Po Paris and Sorbonne University, then one year at the psychology department of University College Cork (Ireland), he is now working on the organization of think tanks on the design of digital models of the city, and on the fight against land artificialisation. Passionate about music, he also leads several projects of piano and orchestral composition.

Bella Schütz Bella Schütz

Bella SSchûtz, an 18-year-old pianist from France, is currently studying at the Mozarteum University in Salzburg with prof. Jacques Rouvier. Bella began the piano at the age of 3 and trained with Branka Balevic-Gasparian then Yves Henry at a school for talented young musicians (Conservatoire à Rayonnement Régional de Paris) from which she graduated in 2019. Bella has followed master-classes with renowned soloists and pedagogues including Claire Désert, Jay Gottlieb, Tatiana Zelikman and Vladimir Tropp and has won prizes in several international piano competitions (Jeunes Talents-Normandie, Claude Bonneton-Sète, Feurich- Vienna, Lagny-sur-Marne). In February 2020 Bella performed Prokofiev’s 3rd piano concerto in Paris with Orchestre Ostinato under maestro José Luis Castillo. In 2019 she was invited to perform Rachmaninov’s Rhapsody on a theme of Paganini at the opening concert of the Nohant Chopin Festival in Chateauroux. She has given many solo recitals in and around Paris (Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, Fondation Deutsch de la Meurthe). She has taken part in various Festivals including l’Eure Poétique et Musicale and Les Musicales du Causse de Gramat.

Benjamin Rougé-Thomas Benjamin Rougé-Thomas
Cameraman and chief operator

Benjamin Rougé-Thomas is a cameraman and chief cameraman. He holds a master's degree in investigative journalism and major reports, and specialized in documentaries after training at the INA. Passionate about images and naturally curious, he touches on everything. Clips, corporate films, documentaries, music recordings, conferences and short films, no challenge scares him. Based in Paris, he travels all over France and abroad depending on the project.

Bernard Legras Bernard Legras
Geoscience Researcher

Bernard Legras is a CNRS research director and works at the Ecole Normale Supérieure in the Dynamic Meteorology Laboratory. During his career he has been interested in many aspects of the dynamics and physics of the atmosphere. He has worked on topics as varied as the ozone hole, weather patterns, climate change, atmospheric and oceanic eddies, stratospheric circulation, the Asian monsoon and its impact. He has recently done work on the impact of volcanic eruptions and large forest fires and found that these generate spectacular ash eddies that persist for several months. He has published more than 100 scientific articles, collaborated with foreign scientists in Asia, Europe and America, mentored many students, chaired a section of the National Committee and was the scientific head of the National Atmospheric Data Centre.

Table ronde : Le hasard gouverne-t-il le temps qu'il fait ?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 16h — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Bertrand Kulik Bertrand Kulik
Violonist and photographer

Professional violinist and passionate about photography, Bertrand Kulik likes to play with the shapes and colors of nature. It is his passion for astronomy that led him to take an interest in photography. Bertrand likes to show that, whatever his environment, man is connected to nature. He regularly collaborates with the press around the world: Figaro Magazine, Le Nouvel Observateur, Daily Telegraph, BBC, The Metro, The sun, The Guardian, Le Parisien, New York Daily News, New York Post, La Repubblica, Ciel et Espace, Paris Match and even the front page of the CBS news.

Bertrand Laforge Bertrand Laforge
Experimental physicist

Bertrand LAFORGE is professor at Sorbonne University. His research focuses mainly on the study of the fundamental properties of matter and its interactions. He is a member of the Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics (LPNHE Paris). After studying the proton structure in the H1 experiment installed at the HERA accelerator in Hamburg during his thesis, he joined the experimental effort at CERN in Geneva. He worked on the analysis of the final LEP2 data in the DELPHI experiment and invested in 1997 in the construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment currently in operation on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. He participated in the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, when he coordinated the corresponding analysis group at LPNHE. Since then, he has carried out research aimed at discovering the microscopic nature of dark matter which seems necessary to explain the organization of the Universe on different scales. In addition, he carries out multidisciplinary activities in theoretical biology and education. For the past 3 years, he has also been developing the Ikigai educational games platform project which enables higher education organisations to develop quality video game content collaboratively and to disseminate it on a large scale.

Conférence : Does random organize complex systems?
Friday 2 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

The behaviour of Nature at microscopic scales seems to be ruled by probabilistic laws making impossible to know, for instance, what will happen in the collision of two elementary particles. At larger scales, Nature exhibits reproducible phenomena that pushed Humankind to develop a deterministic view of our Universe as it was exhibited in the Newtonian laws of mechanics. Statistical physics give a rational explanation of this apparent paradox by invoking the averaging of local fluctuations producing reproducible phenomena at macroscopic scales. This theoretical framework allows especially to abstract a a view of order generation from local disorder, an interesting point of view to explain diluted gas properties or magnetic properties inside materials. Nevertheless, it does not provide a complete toolbox to address the organisation of complex systems in which emergent properties are being observed while they resist to be simply explained in that framework based on an bottom-up point of view. In this conference, I will address the question of the role played by dynamical constraints that apply on a complex system at various scales in its final structure when this system has a probabilistic dynamics at low scales.

Blanche d'Aubigny Blanche d'Aubigny
Research Master in French Literature

After a third year of preparatory classes in Classics at the Lycée Louis le Grand, Blanche d'Aubigny is pursuing her university studies in a Master's degree in French Literature and is currently completing her Master's degree. She is preparing to enter a drama school in Paris next year in order to fully live her passion for theater. Indeed, since she discovered the stage when she was ten years old, she became aware that her taste for texts read and studied could not be dissociated from their "putting into flesh" on stage. Thus, throughout high school, during the annual performances and during theatrical tours, she was able to explore a varied repertoire, ranging from Feydeau to Bernanos and Anouilh, via Shakespeare and Racine. She also founded an amateur theater group with a few friends that performed for two consecutive years.

Spectacle : Bovary21
Friday 2 july 2021

Brigitte Senut Brigitte Senut
Geologist and paleontologist

Geologist and paleontologist by training, Brigitte Senut is a Professor at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. She holds a PhD and a PhD in natural sciences devoted to ancient hominids and fossil great apes and their locomotion. She travels throughout Africa in search of fossils to understand the origin and evolution of modern great apes and humans in a geological and environmental context. She has participated in numerous discoveries, including Otavipithecus namibiensis (12 Ma, Namibia) and Orrorin tugenensis (6 Ma, Kenya). She is also interested in the desertification of Africa over the last 20 million years. These works are or were carried out within expeditions in Africa (Uganda, Kenya, Namibia, Angola, Botswana, South Africa) that she leads or co-leads. She is also strongly involved in the role of natural sciences in sustainable development. Author of more than 400 scientific and popularization articles, she is the recipient of several awards, including the CNRS Silver Medal (2000), the Irène Joliot-Curie-Woman Scientist of the Year Award (2008), the Grand Prix Albert Gaudry of the Geological Society of France (2018) and the Grand Prix of the Del Duca Foundation of the Institut de France (2019).

Conférence : What role does chance play in human evolution?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

The evolution of man is not isolated from that of other animals and our history remains strongly linked to that of biodiversity, whose key words are variation and variability. This history, shaped by our genetic heritage and its variations, natural selection, conditioned by the environments we have frequented (to which we have adapted), is inscribed in a strict framework: that of the fourth dimension, time (more or less long) in relation to the modifications of environments and the geography of continents. Our close relationship with the great apes will be evoked and our common origins will be put into a global context, the migrations from our origins according to geological (paleogeography, tectonics, etc...), biological (man-animal relationships, for example) and then cultural events that will highlight the opportunism of our ancestors over the last 10 million years. We will thus see that chance is one of the important components of our evolution.

Caroline Angleraux Caroline Angleraux
Doctor of Philosophy in Biology

Caroline Angleraux has just defended her PhD in philosophy and history of the life sciences, completed at the Institut d’Histoire et de Philosophie des Sciences et des Techniques (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne) and at the University of Padua, Italy. She works on the concept of simplicity conveyed by the Leibnizian monad and the Haeckelian moneron, and also works on the relationship between this simplicity and the concept of the cell in biology. She aims to uncover how a metaphysical discourse was transformed into the speculative biology that played a major part in the conceptual genealogy of the cell, and how it enlightens our contemporary concept of the cell.

Caroline Granger Caroline Granger
PhD candidate in American studies

Caroline Granger is a Ph.D. student in American Studies at the University of Caen Normandy where she defends a transdisciplinary approach that intertwines human movement and its environment. Her dissertation “Torsions” focuses on American dance in the twentieth century and more especially on Merce Cunningham’s works. In 2019, she received a travel grant for on-site research in New York from the Institut des Amériques to observe the relationships between human beings and their milieu through interviews of dancers and choreographers. This hands-on process, beyond words and pictures, leads her to attend many workshops and participate in artistic projects.

Conférence : What is the nature of chance in dance?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 16h45 - 17h30 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

The word “chance” is often associated with Merce Cunningham’s creative process but it has not been analyzed through its multiple expressions from the creation stage to performance. Focusing on Rainforest (1968), this conference proposes to study the different manifestations of “chance” throughout the metamorphoses of the piece. This paper proposes to tackle the issue through the study of patterns—testimonies of “chance procedures”— found in the choreographer’s notebooks. Which choices were submitted to the roll of the dice? I shall then discuss the transmission from his personal notes to the dancers’ bodies. How do they live through the movements? Which twists do the dancers accomplish? When time comes for the performance and the sharing of a space, music, visual and choreographic works intertwine. These experimental meetings produce what Robert Rauschenberg calls “accidents”, unexpected situations through which dancers adapt themselves. Does “chance” give birth to improvisation? To conclude, I focus on the spectators’ experiences of the performance through an eco-poetic reading of the poem Rain Forest by Alexandra Grilikhes and wonder if “chance” brings about magic.

Catherine Bréchignac Catherine Bréchignac
Nanoscience Physicist

Ambassador Delegate for Science, Technology and Innovation, former Director General and then President of the CNRS, Catherine Bréchignac is Honorary Perpetual Secretary of the French Academy of Sciences. It is in her deep convictions to maintain a balance between her various activities: purely scientific research activity as a nanosciences physicist, activity as a scientific manager as Director General then President of the CNRS, activity in scientific diplomacy as Ambassador. In spite of the important scientific responsibilities she has assumed, she has always been able to keep a scientific activity in the laboratory, then in writing books on the scientific approach, in order to explain how science is built and how scientific thought develops over the years. It is this passion for science, to defend and promote it in France and internationally, that led successive governments to appoint Catherine Bréchignac and then to confirm her as Delegate Ambassador for Science, Technology and Innovation. The author of numerous books and recipient of numerous awards, she was raised to the rank of Grand Officer in the Order of the Legion of Honor.

Table ronde : Quelle est la part du hasard dans les découvertes ?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Catherine Maunoury Catherine Maunoury
CEO Aéro-Club de France

Catherine Maunoury has been interested in airplanes since she was very young. She was only eight years old when her father, a medical pilot, took her flying for the first time. Encouraged by him, she made her first solo flight at the age of 15 and became the youngest licensed pilot at 17. Her passion led her to the highest level of competition: she accumulated titles at the French, European and World championships and is still today among the best female pilots in the world. In 2010 Catherine Maunoury was appointed director of the Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace in Le Bourget and in 2017 president of the Aéro-Club de France.

Conférence : Does aerobatics leave room for chance?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 9h15 - 10h — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Before the pleasure of taking off in an aerobatic plane, I always carry out a thorough checklist: in aviation, nothing can or should be left to chance. Yet many aeronautical innovations are the result of such chance. Since the Montgolfier brothers' aerostat, it has been necessary, it is always necessary to leave room for chance to discover and explore new territories, to allow the emergence and development of aviation. However, the concern to avoid failure and accidents, to control risks by leaving no room for it, has always been at the heart of the concerns of aviation players, from the design of aircraft to the organization of air navigation or knowledge of meteorology. To some, the simple fact of flying in an airplane still seems to be left to the chance of beliefs, of a god or a good fairy who will draw lots for those who have to survive a flight. We are well aware that this is not the case, but that zero risk does not exist in aviation and that we must always be wary of events that may occur by chance, without it being possible to predict or prevent them, in order to reduce as far as possible all sources of possible failures. So, does aerobatics leave room for chance? Sometimes, at least in competition, during the drawing of lots for the order of competitors in a world championship! But once everything has been checked... alea jacta est!

Cécile Malaspina Cécile Malaspina

Cécile Malaspina is a philosopher based in London. She is directeur de programme at the Collège International de Philosophie (CIPh), Paris, and Visting Research Fellow at King's College London, where she is attached to the Department of Digital Humanities and the Department of French. King's College is hosting the open access seminar, An Aesthetics of Noise which she is running for the CIPh in London. She obtained her doctorate in Epistemology, Philosophy and History of Science and Technology at the University Paris 7 Denis Diderot, attached to the research Sphère (Université de Paris). In 2018 she published An Epistemology of Noise with Bloomsbury Academic. She is the principal translator of Gilbert Simondon's On the Mode of Existence of Technical Objects, published in 2017 by Minnesota University Press / Univocal.

Conférence : Is the relation a constitutive contingency?
Friday 2 july 2021, 12h15 - 13h — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

Gilbert Simondon is well-known as a philosopher of technics. But he is also famous for tackling a problem of scholastic metaphysics: the question regarding individuation. In tow comes yet another scholastic problem. Simondon challenges the modern notion of the individual. But he does so by placing the relation at the heart of the subject. The relation was considered by Aristotle as an accident. It is what may or may not occur. This is where Simondon intervenes. The relation no longer happens to an autonomous subject. It becomes intrinsic to its constitution. The relation, for Simondon, is constitutive of both the individual and its milieu. A special kind of relation, the trans-individual relation, is finally constitutive of the subject. Questions of metaphysics may seem somewhat anachronous. Yet they are, I would argue, highly topical also to the philosophy of technics. Our progressive co-evolution with the natural world can no longer be taken for granted. It is a relation that now forebodes the sense of the accidental, if not the catastrophic. Perhaps it is time to think of our relation with the natural world as a constitutive accident? As a necessary contingency that requires our utmost care?

Dédicace : An Epistemology of Noise
Friday 2 july 2021, 13h - 13h45

Christian Viviani Christian Viviani
Researcher in the history of American Film

Chistian Vivani is Maître de conférences HDR at Paris 1-Sorbonne, then Professeur at Université de Caen-Basse Normandie. His research concerns the history of American Film ; he also contributed to introduce « film acting studies » in the French academic field. He is coordinator and co-editor of celebrated film magazine Positif. Among the books he has authored, Le Western (1982), Les Séducteurs du cinéma américain (1984), Ernst Lubitsch (with N. T. Binh, 1992), Al Pacino, Robert De Niro, regards croisés (with Michel Cieutat, 2000, updated in 2005) and Audrey Hepburn, La Grâce et la compassion (with Michel Cieutat, 2009). He is the author of Les Connexions françaises (Editions Nouveau Monde-Paris 1-MSH) and Larousse du Cinéma (2011 edition). He contributes to Dictionnaire des réalisateurs (Larousse), Home Is Where the Heart Is (Christine Gledhill editor, BFI, 1987, 2002) and Journeys of Desire (Ginette Vincendeau and Alastair Phillips editors , BF1, 2006). He translated Acting in the Cinema by James Naremore (Acteurs, le jeu de l’acteur au cinema, PUR, 2014). His essay on film acting, Le Magique et le vrai (Rouge Profond, 2015) has been awarded “best film book for 2015” by the Syndicat National de la Critique Française.

Conférence : Is the Italian melodrama by chance?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 12h15 - 13h — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

Italian culture has melodrama in its DNA. It has been there since the very beginning of Italian cinema (the dive movies, the silent epics, Emilio Ghione’s serials). Then it had a new development coincidentally with the neorealistic effervescence, of which it offered a kind of lowbrow version. Between 1945 and 1960, melodramatic movies proliferated, not always in the shape of low budget uncomplicated productions. Refined filmmakers like Michelangelo Antonioni or Luchino Visconti, prestigious stars like Lucia Bosè, Raf Vallone, Silvana Mangano ou Vittorio Gassman, highly admired writers like Alberto Moravia or Pier Paolo Pasolini contributed. Original directors like Vittorio Cottafavi, Riccardo Freda or Raffaello Matarazzo (probably the very father of the genre) bloomed in it. The Italian aesthetics and dramatics of melodrama are close to the Latin-American or Hindi form of it because of its unabashed use of strokes of fate, turn of events, surprises, miracles, in one word: chance. The purpose of this presentation is to study selected forms of this fatum.

Dédicace : Le magique et le vrai : L'acteur de cinéma, sujet et objet
Thursday 1 july 2021, 13h - 13h45

Claire Mathieu Claire Mathieu
Algorithms researcher

Currently a research director in Computer Science at CNRS (Paris University) and member of the French Academy of Sciences, Claire Mathieu has worked as a CNRS researcher at ENS-Lyon and as a professor in various institutions: Collège de France, École normale supérieure ("attached" professor), Paris-Sud University, École polytechnique, Brown University (USA). Her research area concerns algorithms, with a focus on the design of algorithms to find near-optimal solutions to problems that are hard to solve exactly. Recently, she has been interested in modeling social networks, analyzing stable marriage algorithms, reconstructing hidden graphs, and epidemic simulation. She was awarded the CNRS Silver medal (2019).

Table ronde : Quelle est la part du hasard dans les découvertes ?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Cyril Rigaud Cyril Rigaud
Scientific advisor

Cyril Rigaud was born in Provence and spent his childhood and adolescence gazing at the sky. He studied science and earned a pilot certificate at age 17. In June 1995, he joined the French Air Force as a transport pilot. Initially in charge of support and training missions for forces in mainland France, overseas, and abroad, he became an instructor in 2006-2008. He then went on to join the transportation team for high-level government officials and health evacuations, until 2013. As of 2010, he has also ensured travel for top government officials. In early 2016, he became a co-pilot on a Canadair CL 415 water bombardier for emergency services.

Daniel Nicholson Daniel Nicholson
Historian and philosopher of science

Daniel J. Nicholson is assistant professor at George Mason University (Virginia, USA) and visiting researcher at the Centre for the Conceptual Foundations of Science (Sydney, Australia). Previously, he has worked at the Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research (Vienna, Austria), the Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas (Tel Aviv, Israel) and the Centre for the Study of the Life Sciences (Exeter, UK). His work is characterized by an integrated and strongly interdisciplinary approach to the history and philosophy of biology. His current research focuses on the ontology of living systems, particularly on the ways in which organisms differ from other complex organized systems like machines, and on the implications that these differences have for biological theory. He also has a longstanding interest in the history of theoretical and philosophical reflections on biology.

Conférence : Will Randomness Kill the Bête-Machine?
Friday 2 july 2021, 13h45 - 14h30 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

The celebrated evolutionary biologist Richard Lewontin has remarked that “present day biology is the realization of the famous metaphor of the organism as a bête-machine elaborated by Descartes”. One can certainly recount the history of modern biology as the story of the success of the machine conception of the organism. However, the shortcomings of this determinist view are becoming ever more apparent. An important challenge is emerging in cell biology—a field long characterized by references to ‘circuits’, ‘programs’, ‘motors’, etc. Cell biologists resort to machine metaphors to conceptualise the microscopic structures and processes they study because machines are familiar and intuitively intelligible macroscopic objects of our everyday experience. The problem is that our mechanical intuitions often fail when we attempt to grasp the form and function of cells, as these exist in a world that it is totally alien to us. It is a very strange world, where the effect of gravity is negligible, but where the random dynamics of Brownian motion reign supreme. Importing engineering concepts in cell biology may have seemed like a good idea in the past, but it is now increasingly recognised that these are more likely to mislead than to illuminate, as they inadvertently project onto the messy and stochastic microscopic world of cells features that are only physically possible in the ordered macroscopic world that we (and our machines) inhabit.

David Elbaz David Elbaz

David Elbaz, astrophysicist, is a director of research at the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives (CEA Saclay). He studies the formation of galaxies with a particular interest in the role of stardust, galactic black holes and the families of galaxies called galaxy clusters. His work has been awarded prizes by the Académie des Sciences (Prix Jaffé 2017) and the American Astronomical Society (Prix Chrétien 2000). He is a member of the European Academy of Sciences (Academia Europaea) and a Highly Cited Researcher (1% of researchers) according to the Web of Science (Clarivate Analystics). He is the Managing Editor of the scientific journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, which was originally the journal of European astrophysics and has expanded to 28 member countries. Alongside his research work, he participates in the dissemination of science through conferences, books, shows, documentaries and radio broadcasts. His latest book "Searching for the invisible universe: dark matter, dark energy, black holes" (2016 éditions Odile Jacob) received the Science & Philosophy 2017 Book Prize from the X-Philo association of the Ecole Polytechnique and was nominated for the Goût des Sciences 2017 prize from the French Ministry of Research.

Conférence : Is the universe beautiful by accident?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

"The universe is not bound to be beautiful, and yet it is beautiful. Beauty remains a mystery. After all, the universe could have been nothing but real," wrote Francois Cheng. How did the universe create the shapes of galaxies, stars and planets? A curious chance in a world that is said to lean towards more and more disorder. A closer look reveals that the emergence of the complexity and uniqueness of forms, and therefore of beauty, is a natural, universal, and even fatal consequence of the laws of physics. Behind the eternal struggle between universality and particularity lie invisible components, links between stars and galaxies that are barely discovered today and which seem to hold part of the secret of the emergence of beauty. Astronomers have only a few particles of light at their disposal to reveal these invisible links, but there is no form that has not been born without generating light in a universe that tends towards an ever-increasing abundance of light.

Dédicace : À la recherche de l’Univers invisible : matière noire, énergie noire, trous noirs
Saturday 3 july 2021, 15h15 - 16h

David Haroutunian David Haroutunian

Born in Yerevan (Armenia), David Haroutunian received early tuition from his father, a professional violinist and pupil of Leonid Kogan. He went on to study at the Tchaikovsky Music School under Petros Haykazyan, graduating with honours in 1995. In the same year, he was an award winner in the Amadeus Competition. At the age of thirteen, he gave his first solo performance with orchestra, playing Mozart’s Violin Concerto in G major K216. This was soon followed by concerts in Armenia and Russia, and recordings for radio. In September 1995, he began his studies at the Conservatoire National Supérieur de Paris, obtaining the Premier Prix de Violon in 1998. In 1999, he embarked on the postgraduate course at the Conservatoire National Supérieur de Paris, where he was taught by Jean-Jacques Kantorow. In 1996, Rouben Aharonian (now first violinist of the Borodin Quartet) invited him to perform the double violin concertos by Bach and Vivaldi. The following year, he met Boris Belkin, whose role in the development of the young musician would be pivotal. In the same year, he gained an honours certificate from the Accademia Musicale Chigiana in Siena, Italy. During his studies, David Haroutunian benefited from the expertise of musicians including Olivier Charlier, Zachar Bron, Donald Weilerstein and Christian Ivaldi. Since then, his performing career has expanded to include solo appearances with the Armenian National Philharmonic Orchestra, Moscow Chamber Orchestra, Paris Conservatoire Graduates Orchestra, and with members of Strasbourg Philharmonic Orchestra and the SWR Sinfonieorchester. Concert tours have taken him as far afield as the former USSR, Italy, Great Britain, Germany, Estonia, Ukraine, Argentina, Morocco and Algeria. His interest in the music of all eras ranks him amongst the most eclectic violinists of his generation. A chamber musician of repute, he is regularly invited to play at music festivals of all kinds. David Haroutunian has given solo and chamber recitals in concert halls including the Théâtre des Champs- Élysées, Salle Cortot, Budapest Philharmonic, Moscow’s Hall of Columns, Palazzo Chigi Saracini in Siena, with partners including Paul Badura-Skoda, Elisabeth Leonskaja, Itamar Golan, François-Frédéric Guy, Sonia Wieder-Atherton, Vahan Mardirossian, Henri Demarquette, Jean-Jacques Kantorow and Gérard Poulet. In December 1999 he recorded a live recital for Radio Budapest. The disk received great critical acclaim in Hungary. David Haroutunian has participated in various radio broadcasts on stations including France Musique, Radio Classique, Armenian National Radio and Hungarian National Radio. He is artistic director of the chamber music festivals ‘Les Variations Musicales de Saint-Estèphe’, the ‘Festival de Bormes-les-Mimosas’ and as of 2017, ‘Musique(s) en Emeraude’ in Saint-Malo. In 2016, he formed the Armenian music ensemble Toumanian Mek. Passionate about teaching and music outreach, David Haroutunian has taught at the ‘Conservatoire Erik Satie’ in Paris since 2018. He has also given numerous masterclasses in Argentina, Greece and Armenia. David Haroutunian est également le directeur artistique de trois festivals : « Les Variations Musicales de Saint-Estèphè », le « Festival de Bormes-les-Mimosas » ou encore « Musique(s) en Emeraude » à Saint-Malo. He plays a Lorenzo Carcassi violin made in Florence in 1753.

Denis Noble Denis Noble

Noble's research focuses on using computer models of biological organs and organ systems to interpret function from the molecular level to the whole organism. Together with international collaborators, his team has used supercomputers to create the first virtual organ, the virtual heart. As secretary-general of the International Union of Physiological Sciences 1993–2001, he played a major role in launching the Physiome Project, an international project to use computer simulations to create the quantitative physiological models necessary to interpret the genome, and he was elected president of the IUPS at its world congress in Kyoto in 2009. Denis Noble is also a philosopher of biology. He is the author of The Music of Life and Dance to the Tune of Life, popular books challenging gene-centric interpretations of modern biology. He sees genes as simply templates for making the proteins we need. Genes are controlled by us, and that includes their random variations. He is Emeritus Professor at the University of Oxford.

Conférence : Does chance have the last word in life?
Friday 2 july 2021, 15h15 - 16h — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

How could purpose exist if all behavior is determined? Simply adding randomness to our view of the world does not, by itself, resolve the tension. It is necessary to use a multi-scale systems view of biology in order to include control processes by which randomness at all levels can be harnessed and so used by organisms. Purpose in organisms can then emerge naturally from the ways in which physiological harnessing works.

Estelle Honnorat Estelle Honnorat
Director, investigative journalist

Trained at the Ecole Supérieure de Journalisme de Paris with a specialization in radio, Estelle perfected her methods by joining the Master in Investigative Journalism at City, University of London. After several years as an investigator and writer in several investigative bureaus such as the Bureau of Investigative Journalism, CAPA, Hexagone and Médiawan, Estelle chose to work as a freelance journalist. With this experience, Estelle moved on to directing for Golden News. This was an opportunity for her to take the time to investigate and write the documentary until it was edited, during three years. In the field, strong encounters have taught her to tell beautiful stories with this sensitivity that allows her to approach the intimacy of her characters. Determined and committed to investigative journalism and transmission, Estelle leads short film workshops for Civic Fab with children in the suburbs.

Table ronde : Comment définir le hasard en termes juridiques ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 10h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Etienne Klein Etienne Klein
Physicist ane philosopher

Étienne Klein is a French physicist and philosopher of science. A graduate of École Centrale Paris, he holds a DEA (Master of Advanced Studies) in theoretical physics, as well as a Ph.D. in philosophy of science and an accreditation to supervise research (HDR). He is currently head of the Laboratoire des Recherches sur les Sciences de la Matière (LARSIM), a research laboratory belonging to the CEA and located in Saclay near Paris. He taught quantum physics and particle physics at Centrale Paris for several years and currently teaches philosophy of science. He is a specialist in the question of time in physics and has written a number of essays on the subject. He presents a radio chronicle La Conversation scientifique every Saturday, on the French public station France Culture. Étienne Klein is the author of many books. He practises mountain-climbing and other endurance sports.

Conférence : What is random?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h - 10h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Where does such a thing come from? What is the cause of this or that? How could such an event happen? How can we explain such a strange phenomenon? Every time we try to answer these kinds of questions, we see a path being set up to a bottomless pit, because we can only explain an event by adding to it its own anteriority, and so on: whatever starting point we choose, it appears each time as not being an authentic cause since it asks to be founded itself, that is to say, presented as being itself the effect of another cause, and so on. This is how the notion of causality raises thorny philosophical problems that constitute the counterpoint to those raised by the idea of chance: chance and causality are in fact correlated in the sense that the first unfolds in the shadow of the other. To invoke chance is almost always to admit that there is a difficulty in identifying a causal explanation. Chance corresponds in a way to the purgatory of causality. But does this purgatory really exist?

Dédicace : Ce qui est sans être tout à fait
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30
Dédicace : Conversations avec le sphinx : Les paradoxes en physique
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30
Dédicace : Idées de génies: 33 textes qui ont bousculé la physique
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30
Dédicace : La physique selon Étienne Klein
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30
Dédicace : Matière à contredire
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30

Eymard Houdeville Eymard Houdeville

Eymard Houdeville is a machine learning engineer and a philosopher. His research work, at IDEMIA currently concerns neural networks architectures for computer vision applications. Eymard is especially interested in philosophy of sciences and epistemology of data sciences: what's the role of simplicity in experiments where we manipulate gigabits of data? Eymard wrote his master thesis at Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris in 2018 about the irreproducibility crisis in modern sciences: how can we explain the fact that sciences is full of spurious and fallacious correlations? Worried about social consequences of these new ways to act and think, Eymard has started several vulgarization works and notably realized a tour of european hackerspaces in 2016. Eymard also holds a degree in politicial science of Sciences Po Paris and a bachelor in applied mathematics of Sorbonne University.

Fabrice Pougez Fabrice Pougez
CEO Matwatches

For more than fifteen years, MATWatches brand has positioned itself as the French leader in the design, manufacture and distribution of watches intended for professionals and lovers of watches with character. Fabrice Pougez has built his reputation for excellence by customizing watches for the military, navigators, explorers, members of the special forces, sea rescuers and pilots, among others. Its automatic tool-watches are renowned for their reliability, precision, extreme legibility, and foolproof ruggedness.

Table ronde : La mesure du temps supporte-t-elle le hasard ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 16h45 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Francis Rocard Francis Rocard

Francis Rocard is an astrophysicist, specialized in planetology. He began his career as a planetologist at the CNRS and participated in the VEGA mission to fly over Halley's comet in 1986 and the PHOBOS-88 mission to study the mineralogy of the surface of Mars. In 1989, he joined the Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) where he is in charge of the Solar System Exploration Programs. In this capacity, he followed the realization of all the planetary exploration missions in which France is involved : Mars-96, Mars Express, Curiosity, InSight, ExoMars for the exploration of Mars, Cassini-Huygens for the study of Saturn's system and its satellite Titan in cooperation with the European Space Agency and NASA, Rosetta and Philae, a mission to study a comet with ESA, BepiColombo, European mission to study Mercury with Japan, JUICE to study the icy moons of Jupiter and 1st European mission to the outer Solar System, but also JUNO, New Horizons, Hayabusa-2, Osiris-Rex, Dawn, etc.

Conférence : How do you deal with chance when exploring the planets?
Friday 2 july 2021, 12h15 - 13h — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Space and chance don't mix, that's for sure. "fly as you test and test as you fly" is pretty much the rule. The unexpected must be avoided at all costs. You have to plan for everything, even the worst. This applies to cases that are degraded by a breakdown that forces us to operate on three legs. But the chance is often present because exploring is to discover the unknown which by definition is ... unforeseen. When you land on the ground of a new world, you can't control everything and chance is part of the risk that engineers must translate into robustness. When 20 years ago, JPL was studying a lander on a comet, he had to consider that the ground could be as hard as concrete or as soft as powdery snow. This reflected our total ignorance of comets. Today, with Rosetta, we are able to reduce considerably the range of what is possible for the hardness of the ground. This project never came to fruition because the risk of chance was too great. The notion of worst case is very important in space, it sets the limits of the possible and allows engineers to work. Various examples will be presented where chance has had happy or unfortunate consequences.

Dédicace : Dernières nouvelles de Mars : La mission du siècle
Friday 2 july 2021, 13h - 13h45
Dédicace : Mars, Une exploration photographique
Friday 2 july 2021, 13h - 13h45

Francis Yaiche Francis Yaiche
Professor of Universities

Francis Yaiche is currently Professor Emeritus at the University of Paris and at the Celsa Sorbonne where he teaches information and communication sciences, semiotics of advertising and political discourse and creativity. Research Director at the Ecole Doctorale 433 " Concepts and Languages (EDV), member of the Gripic Celsa (Interdisciplinary Research Group on Information and Communication Processes, EA 1498), Doctor in Language Sciences and Information and Communication Sciences, member of the Scientific Council of Celsa, he was in charge of the "Magistère de Communication" and the Master 2 "Marketing and Brand Strategies" at Celsa, he was Dean of the "Catho" in Paris, Deputy Director of the Bureau d'Etudes pour les Langues et les Cultures, has taught at the ENA and in many foreign universities, among others on the axis of identity and the evolution of the definition of relationships. He has carried out more than four hundred missions around the world and is the author of some sixty articles, fifteen books and twelve video clips on You Tube. He is regularly invited to conferences, congresses and seminars in France and abroad. He was the founding Vice-President of Gerflint, Editor-in-Chief of the magazine Synergies France, member of the journalists' blog La Ruche where he publishes articles and articles. He has directed numerous research projects and has participated in numerous thesis and HDR juries.

Spectacle : Bovary21
Friday 2 july 2021

François Forget François Forget

François Forget is research scientist involved in space exploration, observations analysis, instrument development and modelling of the environment on other worlds like Mars, Pluto, extra-solar planets, Venus, Titan, Triton, etc. In particular, his team develop numerical Climate Models designed to accurately simulate the environment on other planets. His research is primarily focused on the development of Global Climate Models (GCM) designed to accurately simulate the environment on other planets. The scientific applications are countless. On this basis, he is also deeply involved in space exploration, observations analysis, and space instrumentationFrançois Forget is Deputy Director of the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD), Paris, France. (~200 scientists and engineers) and senior Research scientist CNRS at Institut Pierre Simon Laplace

Table ronde : Quelle est la part du hasard dans les découvertes ?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

François Simon-Fustier François Simon-Fustier
Maitre d'art in horology

François Simon-Fustier is currently the only French Maitre d'Art in Horology.His workshop is the continuation from the one created in 1890 by his great grandfather. Nowadays, his time is split between repairing antique clocks or building clocks, teaching clock-working techniques, and preserving horology knowledge by creating digital twins and archives in 3D. He is currently developing Chronospedia together with Grenoble Alpes University and with the support from many French horology institutions.

Table ronde : La mesure du temps supporte-t-elle le hasard ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 16h45 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

François Taddei François Taddei
CRI Director

François Taddei is a polytechnicien, Chief Engineer of Ponts, Eaux et Forêts, PhD in Molecular and Cellular Genetics. He is director of the Frontiers of Living and Learning Department at the University of Paris Descartes and the founder and director of the Centre de Recherches Interdisciplinaires (CRI) which has just inaugurated premises of nearly 7000m2 in the Marais. In 2012, he is the winner of the call for tenders on initiatives for excellence in innovative training (IDEFI). In 2013, he initiated Les Savanturiers - l'école de la Recherche, an educational programme developed by the Centre de Recherches Interdisciplinaires, which works to implement education through research in the School: primary, middle and high school. In 2014 he will become the holder of the UNESCO Chair "Learning Sciences". He has received various national (Inserm Basic Research Prize and Liliane Bettencourt Prize for Life Sciences, Montgolfier Prize) and international awards (European Young Investigator Award, Human Frontier Science Program) for his publications in the world's best journals such as Nature, Science, Cell, PNAS, PLoS... Knight of the Order of Academic Palms and Arts and Letters, he was a member of the High Council of Education and the Scientific Councils of Universcience, and of the General Direction of School Education. In 2018, he submitted a report on the learning society to the Ministers of Labour, National Education, Higher Education, Research and Innovation and published Learning in the 21st Century by Calmann Lévy.

Conférence : How can we increase the chances of learning to meet our challenges?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 16h - 16h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

in progress

Dédicace : Apprendre au 21ème siècle
Saturday 3 july 2021, 16h45 - 17h30

Gautier Depambour Gautier Depambour
PhD student in science's history

Former student of the French engineering school CentraleSupélec, Gautier Depambour is currently studying History and Philosophy of Science at Paris VII University. During his gap year, he had the opportunity to work as an intern for five months at CERN within the communication group of the ATLAS detector. Meanwhile, he has lead a Machine Learning project on particle physics. He has also spent six months in the Quantum Cavity Electrodynamics group in the Kastler-Brossel Laboratory (Collège de France, Paris) for his Masters degree in nanophysics. Finally, he feels passionate about explaining and helping others understand science. He is involved in several projects such as the website of the French physicist and philosopher Etienne Klein. He also wrote a book to tell his experience at CERN, called Une Journée au CERN.

Table ronde : Peut-on créer sans hasard ?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 11h30 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire
Dédicace : Idées de génies: 33 textes qui ont bousculé la physique
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30

Georges Lewi Georges Lewi
Brand Expert

Combining education in both classical letters and marketing, Georges Lewi has developed an interest in brands’ life very early and started his research on brands’ life cycle with his first book "Sale temps pour les marques » (Bad weather for brands). He analyzed a paradoxical phenomenon: some young brands are aging prematurely while centuries old brands are doing very well. Author of over 15 books, he is considered as one of the best European branding specialists. He taught at HEC Paris, at CELSA (Paris4Sorbonne), delivering his knowledge in conferences and in consulting for major companies where he handled about 500 case studies. He received many honors thanks to his work on storytelling.

Conférence : Is there a place for random in marketing?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

in progress

Spectacle : Bovary21
Friday 2 july 2021

Dédicace : Devenir une marque mythique
Thursday 1 july 2021, 15h15 - 16h
Dédicace : Bovary 21
Friday 2 july 2021, 12h15 - 13h
Dédicace : Bovary 21
Friday 2 july 2021, 18h15 - 19h

Gérard Berry Gérard Berry
Professor and Writer

Gérard Berry is a French computer scientist, member of French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences), French Academy of Technologies (Académie des technologies), and Academia Europaea. He was the Chief Scientist Officer of Esterel Technologies from 2000 to 2009. He held the 2007-2008 yearly Liliane Bettencourt chair of Technological Innovation at the Collège de France. He is currently Director of Research at INRIA and is holding the 2009-2010 yearly Informatics and Digital Sciences chair at the Collège de France. Berry's work, which spans over more than 30 years, brought important contributions to three main fields: lambda calculus and functional programming, parallel and real-time programming languages, design automation for synchronous digital circuits. Berry is known for the Esterel programming language.

Conférence : Do chance and time go together in our heads?
Friday 2 july 2021, 16h - 16h45 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Games are ideal for showing how our thinking gets really messed up when we try to figure out how to behave in the face of chance, especially repeated chance. Three examples will show this in a way that is as joyful as it is edifying: a strange personal experience of playing the national lottery, an ultra-classic riddle that still works well, and finally the famous three-door game, which is really trivial, but which has nevertheless unleashed passions and even fooled ultra-confirmed mathematicians.

Table ronde : Quelle est la part du hasard dans les découvertes ?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Gérard Lambert Gérard Lambert
Doctor, science journalist, essayist

A medical doctor, he created an SOS Médecins branch in Yvelines in 1985 with, for 8 years, a medical emergency practice in town and management responsibilities for the structure. From 1992 he became a journalist in the specialised medical press and published numerous articles in the general public press. Today he is the editorial director of LEN Médical, responsible for the seminar at the Centre Cavaillès (ENS, Paris), administrator and collection director at the Matériologiques publishing house. He has published La légende des gènes, Anatomie d'un mythe moderne (Dunod 2003 ); Vérole, Cancer & Cie, La société des maladies (Le Seuil 2009) and has edited several collective works. For more than 10 years he has been hosting interactive online programs for general practitioners and specialists.

Conférence : Can epidemics be predicted?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 10h - 10h45 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

An epidemic recapitulates biology: it emerges from the multi-scale interaction between a parasite, its hosts and the environment. Whatever the contagiousness and virulence of a pathogen, it only becomes a danger to humans when the man-made conditions for its emergence and spread are met. Many attempts at emergence are unsuccessful, but when a microorganism manages to spread in human populations, at each stage of the epidemic, covering a field ranging from the molecular level to transcontinental transports, the stochastic processes at work have a decisive impact on its dynamics. Under these conditions, is it possible to anticipate an epidemic and/or predict its evolution?

Table ronde : La médecine peut-elle s’affranchir du hasard ?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 15h15 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Gilles Dawidowicz Gilles Dawidowicz

Gilles Dawidowicz is a geographer (Sorbonne University), specialized in planetary sciences. He has been campaigning since the 90s for a robotic exploration of the solar system bodies and is promoting the exploration of Mars. Former member of the Mars Society and its French chapter the Association Planète Mars, he has been president of the Triel Observatory for 5 years and has for many years chaired the Planetary Committee of the Société astronomique de France, of which he is the Secretary General since June 2018. Gilles is also co-author of popular works on Mars, Saturn and Northern lights. He regularly hosts major public meetings at the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie (Paris) covering international space news.

Table ronde : Quelle est la part du hasard dans les découvertes ?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Gilles Dowek Gilles Dowek
Computer scientist and logistician

Gilles Dowek is a researcher at Inria and a professor the École normale supérieure de Paris-Saclay. He works on the formalization of mathematics, on proof processing systems, on the physics of computation, on the safety of aerospace systems, and on the epistemology and ethics of informatics. He is a member of the scientific board of la Société informatique de France, of the scientific board of La Main à la pâte and of the Comité National Pilote d'Éthique du Numérique.

Conférence : Are we freer because the world evolves randomly?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 16h45 - 17h30 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

The idea of a deterministic world seems to leave no room to free will. But, conversely, are we freer because the world evolves randomly? We shall try to show that this dead end in the philosophy of freedom originates from a presupposition that we are outside the world. If we start from the converse hypothesis, that we are within the world, then the question takes a completely different form.

Dédicace : Ce dont on ne peut parler, il faut l'écrire
Thursday 1 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15
Dédicace : Vivre, aimer, voter en ligne et autres chroniques numériques
Thursday 1 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15

Gilles Ramstein Gilles Ramstein

Gilles Ramstein is a CEA research director at the LSCE (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement). He is a paleoclimatologist, specialized in climate modeling, biogeochemical cycles and their interactions. He is the author of several books including "Voyage travers les climats de la Terre" (Odile Jacob, 2015) and the book co-written with Sylvestre Huet "Le climat en 100 questions" (Tallandier, 2020).

Table ronde : Le hasard gouverne-t-il le temps qu'il fait ?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 16h — Amphi Jean-Fourastié
Dédicace : Le climat en 100 questions
Thursday 1 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15

Giuseppe Longo Giuseppe Longo
Mathematician, logician and epistemologist

Giuseppe Longo is Directeur de Recherche (DRE) CNRS, Centre Interdisciplinaire Cavaillès, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris and Adjunct Professor, School of Medicine, Tufts University, Boston. He is a former Professor of Mathematical Logic and, later, of Computer Science at the University of Pisa. In the '80s, he spent 3 years in the USA (U.C.Berkeley, M.I.T., Carnegie Mellon) as researcher and Visiting Professor. GL is founder and director (1990-2015) of Mathematical Structures in Computer Science, a Cambridge U.P. journal. Since the '90s, he extended his research interests to the Epistemology of Mathematics and Theoretical Biology. He (co-)authored more than 100 papers and three books: with A. Asperti, on Categories, Types and Structures (M.I.T. Press, 1991); with F. Bailly, Mathematics and the natural sciences: The Physical Singularity of Life (Hermann, Paris, 2006; Imperial College Press, London, 2011); with M. Montévil, Perspectives on Organisms: Biological Time, Symmetries and Singularities (Springer, Berlin, 2014). With A. Soto and D. Noble, Longo edited (and co-authored six papers) a special issue of Prog Biophys Mol Biol, From the century of the genome to the century of the organism: New theoretical approaches, 2016. He directed a research project at IEA-Nantes (2014-18) on the concept of law, in human and natural sciences, see the book: Lois des dieux, des hommes et de la nature, G. Longo (Editeur), Spartacus IDH, Paris, 2017.

Conférence : Is biological randomness just noise?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

The scientific revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries was deeply mechanistic. From Galileo to Laplace, thus until the beginning of the 19th century, the ‘‘complex’’ was thought of as the “linear stacking of the simple’’. Poincaré, at the end of the 19th century, broke this vision of physical dynamics. Despite this, the power of the renaissance vision of the world and its successes, in particular in the construction of machines, biased our relationship with the living and the ecosystem: until the end of the 20th century, we continued to see the cell as a “Cartesian mechanism”, molecular interactions as a “Boolean algebra”. Even today, many think that we can exactly control organisms by editing their DNA, just like by programs, as writing and rewriting system to edit, we menage our digital machines. We will summarize certain aspects of this view of the world by sketching its direct passage, and for good reasons, by the theories of the elaboration and transmission of information which have had a key role in the contemporary understanding of the living and where the randomness is, in principle, just noise. It will then be a question of giving a new role to randomness and to the subject knowing / acting on the organisms and their environment.

Héloïse Brezillon Héloïse Brezillon
Doctoral student - Artistic creation

Héloïse Brezillon is a phd student in creative writing, a poetess and a science-fiction writer. Regarding theory, she's studying what she calls "sound science-fiction", an emerging genre combining imaginary literature and sound experimentations. As for her creative writing practice, it is full of obsessions : the body as a territory, feminine intimacy, how we deal with our ecosystems and power. Her approach is both stamped by her political radicality and her sensitivity about the flesh and the world. She also gives creative writing workshops at universities, schools and differents social structures, because she believes that it's possible to generate poetry and imagination in everybody.

Table ronde : Peut-on créer sans hasard ?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 11h30 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Henri Raczymow Henri Raczymow

Henri Raczymow was born in Paris in 1948. After studying literature, he became a high school teacher. He is the author of over thirty works (published mainly by Gallimard), consisting of novels and personal and critical essays. Amongst his works feature, the novels Writing the Book of Esther (Holmes & Meier, Un Cri sans voix (1985) and Bloom & Bloch (1993), the personal essays Dix jours "polonais" (2007) ou Heinz (2011), and the monograph, Swan's Way (1990).

Conférence : Do love stories for Proust come by chance?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 11h30 - 12h15 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

Love has no necessity in Proust’s work. One falls in love as he/she falls ill. Love is a disease which falls on you like a virus and of which you wake someday healed, with no reason, wondering to yourself, how could I have fallen in love with that person? How could I spoil years of my life for someone who was not my type? It was just a bad moment to get through. If there is no necessity in falling in love, if it is apparently arbitrary, it still comes from what André Breton called “objective chance”, a mixture of chance and necessity. Necessity - in other words the Unconscious. And again in other words, there is some chance, but it is not by chance that there is that very chance! And if that chance makes one falls in love in Proust, its role, its emergence, belong to an etiology - I use the medical term on purpose for in Proust’s vision we are all ill, including Proust, who refused the very existence of love and even friendship.

Dédicace : Le Cygne de Proust
Thursday 1 july 2021, 12h15 - 13h

Hervé Dole Hervé Dole

I'm a professor at the Université Paris-Saclay in Orsay, at the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS). I am a honorary member of the Institut Universitaire de France. I was deputy Director of IAS. Before, I was a Research Associate at the University of Arizona working on NASA's Spitzer. I'm interested in the emergence of large scale structure, esp. galaxy proto-clusters, and the role of infrared galaxies in the history of the Universe, and try to understand the physical processes driving the formation and the evolution of galaxies. I'm also interessted in understanding the relic emission of galaxies, the extragalactic background light. To do so, I'm observing galaxies and the Cosmic Infrared Background (the relic emission of galaxies) with IR space telescopes like Planck, Herschel, Spitzer or ISO and also develop new analysis tools and models. I'm heavily involved now in Euclid as well.

Conférence : Does chance nest in cosmology?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 16h - 16h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Is our scientific vision of the Universe on a large scale, through cosmology, affected by chance? Our sophisticated measurement instruments such as dedicated satellites and ground-based telescopes and their large-scale surveys provide us with exquisite data. Our theories and models, although containing limitations, reflect an unprecedented refinement. And yet... randomness nests in observable Universe, and even at the very heart of our data analysis processes.

Dédicace : Le côté obscur de l'univers
Thursday 1 july 2021, 16h45 - 17h30

Hervé Fischer Hervé Fischer
Artist and multimedia philosopher

Multimedia artist and philosopher Hervé Fischer initiated Sociological art in1971 and practices since 2011 tweet art and tweet philosophy. His work has been presented in numerous art museums and biennales. The Centre Pompidou has devoted to him a retrospective Hervé Fischer and sociological art in 2017. Pioneer of the digital revolution in Quebec, he cofounded the Cité des arts et des nouvelles technologies de Montréal in 1985, the first Cybercafé in Canada, the Télescience Festival, Science for All. His research focuses on art, sociology of colors, the digital revolution , social imagination, hyperhumanism. He created the Quebec Media lab Hexagram. He is the author of many books including Théorie de l’art sociologique (1977), L’Histoire de l’art est terminée (1981), Digital Shock (2002), CyberProméthée, l’instinct de puissance (2003), La planète hyper, de la pensée linéaire à la pensée en arabesque (2004), The Decline of the Hollywood Empire (2005), La société sur le divan (2007), L’Avenir de l’art (2010), La divergence du futur (2014), La pensée magique du Net (2014), Market Art (2016), Les couleurs de l’Occident. De la Préhistoire au XXIe siècle (2019), L’Âge hyperhumaniste. Pour une éthique planétaire (2019). He is the founder of the International Society of Mythanalysis.

Conférence : Was the universe a random creation?
Friday 2 july 2021, 16h - 16h45 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

Or should we think that God is a random creation? Einstein wrote: “God does not play dice with the universe”. It seems that astrophysicists believe either in random or necessity, or a mix of the two as the case may be. Actually humans believe in random power. They consider it as a mighty spirit, which may individually bring luck, if it behaves humanely, or turn malicious in case of a bad fate. And they always hope its help. Random is a myth, but the one and only without a link with any collective storytelling. We may therefore question if any mythanalyse of random may even be possible.

Hervé Le Treut Hervé Le Treut

Hervé Le Treut is a climatologist, specialist in numerical climate simulation. He is a member of the French Academy of Sciences and former director of the Pierre-Simon-Laplace Institute. Hervé is a professor of environmental mechanics and physics at the École polytechnique and Pierre and Marie Curie University. He also teaches climate dynamics at the École normale supérieure and at Sciences Po.

Table ronde : Le hasard gouverne-t-il le temps qu'il fait ?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 16h — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Hervé Zwirn Hervé Zwirn
Physicist and epistemologist

Hervé Zwirn was an associate professor at the Physics Department of the University of Paris 7 and Director of Research at the CNRS. He is currently a research associate at the Centre de mathématiques appliquées of the École normale supérieure de Paris Saclay and at the Institut d'histoire et de philosophie des sciences et des techniques of the Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne. His work focuses on the foundations of quantum physics.

Conférence : Does quantum physics explain random?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 15h15 - 16h — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

It is often believed that quantum physics brings the final proof that a true randomness is present at the micoscopic scale. Quantum mechanics is a thery inside which the indeterminism does not come from an incomplete knowledge of the world or from an uncertainty about initial states but from a randomness assumed to be essential at the core of subatomic events. I will examine if this position is mandatory or if it can be discussed. In particular, I will present theories alternative to quantum mechanics, some being considered as deterministic, and will analyze how randomnes is delt with inside them.

Dédicace : Le monde quantique
Thursday 1 july 2021, 16h - 16h45

Hortense de Kerimel Hortense de Kerimel
Student - CELSA

After two years of preparatory classes, Hortense de Kerimel joined the CELSA and is currently a student in Master 1 of Information and Communication in Brand specialization. But what motivates her on a daily basis is theater and role-playing. For five years, as a schoolgirl and then as a high school student, she was part of an amateur theater troupe, the Figaros Troupe, and took part in numerous performances in France and Belgium: classics such as Beaumarchais and Rostand, rewritings of novels such as those by Paul Féval and Anne Bernet. Her years of preparation finished, she launches out with friends in the elaboration of the Dindon, which is still in the course of preparation ...

Spectacle : Bovary21
Friday 2 july 2021

Hubert Krivine Hubert Krivine
Senior Lecturer in Physics

Hubert Krivine is an emeritus lecturer in physics. He taught at the University of Paris VI and did his research in nuclear physics and statistical mechanics at the University of Paris-Sud. He has published five books on popular science. Hubert was awarded the Rationalist Union Prize (2011), the History of Science Prize of the Academy of Sciences (2012) and a mention in the Tangente Trophy (2017). In 2018, he was appointed as an expert to the program project development groups (GEPP) in charge of physics-chemistry for the general high school.

Conférence : Is randomness a limitation of artificial intelligence?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 16h45 - 17h30 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Artificial intelligence is spectacularly effective in all domains where we can disregard, with a good approximation, the history of the system studied and its interactions with the environment. This is often the case in the so-called "hard" sciences, and more generally when we can operate "all things being equal", as in the game of Go or in pattern recognition (faces, voices, tumors etc.). But in "real" life, the uncontrolled interaction of the system under study with its "outside", which could be identified at random, is often the rule, and it places artificial intelligence in a difficult situation, even in failure. This is the difference between the automatic driving of a subway train and that of a vehicle in the hazardous complexity of a road. No more than the identity card is the identity, the geographical (or genomic) map, however enriched, is the terrain.

Dédicace : Comprendre sans prévoir, prévoir sans comprendre
Saturday 3 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15
Dédicace : L'IA peut-elle penser ?: Miracle ou mirage de l'intelligence artificielle
Saturday 3 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15
Dédicace : Petit traité de hasardologie
Saturday 3 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15

Hubert Reeves Hubert Reeves

Hubert Reeves is a French Canadian astrophysicist and popularizer of science. He obtained a BSc degree in physics from the Université de Montréal in 1953, an MSc degree from McGill University in 1956 with a thesis entitled "Formation of Positronium in Hydrogen and Helium" and a PhD degree at Cornell University in 1960. From 1960 to 1964, he taught physics at the Université de Montréal and worked as an advisor to NASA. He has been a Director of Research at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique since 1965. In 1994, he was made Officer of the National Order of Quebec. He was promoted to Grand Officer in 2017. His most important publications include: Patience dans l'azur (1981) and Poussières d’étoiles (1984), Là où croît le péril… croît aussi ce qui sauve (2013), Le Banc du temps qui passe (2017).

Conférence : What is the role of random in the evolution of the cosmos?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

The role of random in cosmology is part of the formulation law of quantum physics. The fundamental equation of physics, Schröedinger's equation, is deterministic; but Born's rule, the one that allows us to interpret the solutions of this equation, gives probabilistic answers. In the real world, this is supported by the notion of random. Random alone generates clutter; necessity (laws) alone generates monotony. Necessity allows matter to organize and become more complex; random allows diversity and creativity. Nature plays on both sides. It combines chance and necessity to make beings that are ever more complex and structured.

Dédicace : La Fureur de vivre
Saturday 3 july 2021, 18h15 - 19h
Dédicace : Le banc du temps qui passe
Saturday 3 july 2021, 18h15 - 19h
Dédicace : Poussières d'étoiles
Saturday 3 july 2021, 18h15 - 19h

Ivar Ekeland Ivar Ekeland

Ivar Ekeland was president of the University of Paris-Dauphine and director of the Pacific Institute of Mathematical Sciences in Vancouver. He has written numerous scientific papers on mathematics, economics and finance, and he is now working on climate change and the biodiversity crisis. He holds honorary doctorates from several universities, he is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and a foreign member of the Academy of Sciences of Norway, Palestine and Austria

Conférence : Is randomness right?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 12h15 - 13h — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Randomness was first used as a tool to achieve fairness. Pascal, in his treatise on the arithmetic triangle, develops fairness arguments to establish the basic rules of probability. These originis are mostly forgotten nowadays, certainly they do not appear in Kolmogorov's formalism, but they are now coming back with a vengeance. Nowadays, when people no longer trust each other or their governments, there is a longing for fairness and impartiality, and this is just what randomness can provide. We will study several examples

Dédicace : Le hasard. Une approche mathématique
Thursday 1 july 2021, 13h - 13h45

Jacques Arnould Jacques Arnould
Ehics expert

Jacques Arnould is an engineer in agronomy and forestry, with a Ph.D. in History of Sciences as well as a Ph.D. in Theology. He researches the interrelation between sciences, cultures, and religions, with a particular interest in two areas: life sciences and space exploration. With respect to the first area, he has written several books on the historical and theological dimensions of the life sciences, with a special emphasis on evolution. With respect to the conquest of space, since 2001 he has served as ethics advisor to the Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES), the French space agency. Dr. Arnould has served as adjunct faculty with the International Space University since 2000, and he is an elected member of the International Academy of Astronautics. In 2004 he was awarded the Labruyère Prize from the Académie Française, and in 2011 the received the Audiffred Prize from the Académie des sciences morales et politiques. In addition to authoring numerous books in French, he has published Gene Avatars: The Neo-Darwinian Theory of Evolution (2002), God vs Darwin: Will the Creationists Triumph over Science? (2009), Icarus’ Second Chance: The Basis and Perspectives of Space Ethics (2011) and God, the Moon, and the Astronaut (2015).

Conférence : Is chance God walking around incognito ?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 13h45 - 14h30 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

In the past, dice obeyed the gods: throwing them was a way for humans to know their will. For the world was a cosmos, in other words a totality as beautiful as it was orderly, of which no element, no mechanism could escape its destiny, its duty; neither chance nor risk existed then. They appeared when the astronomers of the seventeenth century broke the crystal spheres on which the stars circulated, when merchants began to criss-cross the seas and rationally manage the risk of losing their goods, when mathematicians invented probabilities. The gods seem to be leaving a world that looks like a casino. Charles Darwin wins the jackpot by claiming that the living are the fruit of random transformations subject to an intractable selection... But Albert Einstein is rebellious: "God does not play dice"; "chance is the pseudonym that God chooses when he wants to remain incognito", Albert Schweitzer adds. The game, which was relaunched by the scientists themselves, does not seem to be over yet. It remains for us to ask ourselves for which of the protagonists God himself has bet...

Dédicace : Giordano Bruno : un génie, martyr de l'Inquisition
Saturday 3 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15
Dédicace : Sous le voile du cosmos
Saturday 3 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15

Jacques Patarin Jacques Patarin
Professor and researcher in cryptography

Jacques Patarin is a professor and researcher in cryptography, qualified to direct research. He is a former student of the École Centrale and currently teaches at the University of Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines. Jacques Patarin works on both asymmetric and symmetric cryptography problems. He conducts research in cryptanalysis and in the construction of new cryptographic algorithms. Jacques Patarin has filed 11 patents in cryptography. He is a member of the editorial board of AAECC (Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing) since 2014.

Conférence : What is the place and strength of chance in cryptography?
Friday 2 july 2021, 16h45 - 17h30 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

in progress

Jean Audouze Jean Audouze

Jean Audouze is an astrophysicist and emeritus research director at the CNRS, assigned to the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris (IAP). His research concerns nucleosynthesis, the chemical evolution of galaxies and cosmology. He was successively director of the IAP from 1978 to 1989, scientific advisor to President François Mitterrand from 1989 to 1993, president of the Etablissement Public du Parc et de la Grande Halle de la Villette from 1993 to 1996, director of the Palais de la découverte from 1998 to 2004, president of the scientific committee of the European Innovation and Research Fair from 2004 to 2009 and president of the French National Commission for UNESCO from 2010 to the end of 2014. In addition, he taught astrophysics at the Ecole Polytechnique from 1974 to 1989 and the culture of science from 1990 to 2008 at Sciences Po (Paris). Currently he is also an associate scientist at the Théâtre de la Ville de Paris and he chairs the association "Prévenance - Apprrenons à vivre ensemble". He is the author, alone or in collaboration with others, of more than 200 scientific publications and more than 20 popular science books.

Conférence : Is our material formed and structured by chance?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 9h15 - 10h — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Everything that is observable, including us, is made up of so-called atomic or nuclear matter. An atom comprises a nucleus of atomic mass A=Z+N, gathering Z protons (a particle of positive charge and mass equal to 1.6x10-24g) and N neutrons (electrically neutral and of the same mass as the proton). Z electrons of negative charge orbit around this nucleus (the number Z is said to be the atomic number of the atom and characterizes its chemical nature -1 for hydrogen, 6 for carbon, 26 for iron, and 92 for uranium. While the electron is an elementary particle, it has been known since the 1960s-1970s that protons are formed of 2 quarks u of charge +2/3 and a quark d of charge -1/3 while neutrons are made up of 1 u and 2 d. The behavior of these quarks and the gluons that "confine" them is governed by the strong nuclear interaction. The transformation of a u into a d (or vice versa) with the emission of an electron (or positron) and a neutrino (or antineutrino) is governed by the weak nuclear interaction. These two interactions are added to gravity and electromagnetism to be the set of fundamental interactions that act on matter at all scales. Is this structuring of matter and its organization at all scales due to chance?

Dédicace : Les 100 mots de l'astronomie
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h - 10h45
Dédicace : LumièreS
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h - 10h45

Jean-François Clervoy Jean-François Clervoy

Jean-François Clervoy, successively active French, NASA and European astronaut for 33 years ranks as brigadier general from DGA (Defense procurement agency) reserve. Born in 1958, JFC graduated from Ecole Polytechnique in 1981, from SupAero college of Aeronautics in 1983 and from Test flying school in 1987. He flew on three missions aboard the space shuttle: in 1994 to study the atmosphere, in 1997 to resupply the Russian space station Mir, and in 1999 to repair the Hubble space telescope. Then JFC worked as senior advisor for the ESA human space flight programs and is chairman of Novespace which organizes weightlessness parabolic flights aboard the Airbus A310 ZERO-G. He is author, inventor and professional speaker. He is member of several organizations for the promotion of space exploration and for the protection of planet Earth.

Conférence : What chance does the astronaut leave to chance?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 11h30 - 12h15 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

In total, I spent 28 days in space. But why me? Why was I selected in the end, rather than my neighbor when we were only about twenty candidates, all perfectly capable, both physically, psychologically and intellectually? A space mission, from its conception to its implementation, represents a project of extreme complexity, as much for the technologies involved as for the cost management and coordination of the teams invested in the long run. As astronauts, we prepare for the worst by hoping for the best. As we approach liftoff, the crew is in complete confidence. They feel they are capable of dealing with every conceivable situation. In orbit, the main danger comes from the millions of natural micrometeoroids and artificial debris. From space, the view of the Earth is breathtaking. The atmosphere observed on its edge on the horizon is evidence that life on Earth is not very important. Land, water and oxygen are limited. Why is it so beautiful? Everyone has their own conviction. Some see God, others see chance...

Dédicace : Histoire de la conquête spatiale
Thursday 1 july 2021, 12h15 - 13h

Jean-Jacques Kupiec Jean-Jacques Kupiec
Molecular Biologist

Jean-Jacques Kupiec first practiced molecular biology during twenty years at INSERM. He among other things cloned and sequenced several viral genomes. He then created and supervised during fifteen years the History and Philosophy of Biology seminar at the Cavaillès Centre (Ecole normale supérieure - Paris). He is the author of a theory which led to experiments demonstrating the crucial role played by chance in embryonic development.

Conférence : Is the development of an embryo random?
Friday 2 july 2021, 9h15 - 10h — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

The cells of an embryo combine to form the multicellular living beings that we are thanks, on the one hand, to the stochastic (random) expression of their genes and, on the other hand, to their interactions with the internal environment that stabilize them. This is a phenomenon of chance and selection analogous to natural selection occurring within living beings. This theory allows us to make testable experimental predictions that have been verified. In particular, it predicts a peak of variability (of disorder) in gene expression preceding cellular differentiation. Computer simulation experiments show that, in this framework, a living being is a state of equilibrium between the intrinsic random variation of cells and their interaction with the internal environment, and that the cause of cancer is a disturbance of this equilibrium.

Dédicace : Et si le vivant était anarchique ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 10h - 10h45

Jean-Jacques Quisquater Jean-Jacques Quisquater
Engineer in applied mathematics and cryptologist

Jean-Jacques Quisquater is an engineer in applied mathematics (UCLouvain) and a cryptologist. He got a PhD in computer science (LRI, Orsay). He was working for 20 years in industry with a research laboratory in Brussels for Philips, designing new smart cards including strong cryptography and random generators, then 20 years at the university teaching cryptology and doing research publishing many research papers. He is a member h the Royal Academy of Belgium, with the class Technology and society. He is an IACR fellow and received the RSA award for excellence in mathematics and the first ESORICS Outstanding Research Award.

Conférence : How to prove that this number was really chosen at random?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 16h - 16h45 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

Proving that a number was drawn at random is an easy question with difficult solutions. Often the proof is obtained by a draw in public with certified material and before sworn or unsworn witnesses and bailiffs (lottery). But what to do from a distance? Especially after the draw, long afterwards. We will examine the solutions provided by cryptography: on the one hand, how to properly generate random numbers and, if possible, with a generator for which one has a good mathematical proof of generation (we will observe the limits) and on the other hand how to convince a third party that this number was drawn at random. We will see that this requires a very precise definition of randomness and its simulation.

Jean-Jacques Szczeciniarz Jean-Jacques Szczeciniarz
Philosopher and historian of science

Jean-Jacques Szczeciniarz is a philosopher and historian of science, teaching at the Universities of Paris, Bordeaux and Picardy; he has been Professor Emeritus since November 2019. After studying Classics, Philosophy and Mathematics at the ENS Ulm, he gets a DEA in Logic Epistemology in 1979, as well as a DEA in Pure Mathematics in 1988. He dedicates his PhD to the history of cosmology, and in particular to the work of Nicolas Copernicus. From 2004 to 2018, he is a member of the French CNU (National Council of Universities) and heads the HPS (History, Philosophy, Sociology of Science) department at the University Paris Diderot. He is the author of several books including Copernic et la révolution copernicienne (GF, 1998), Le concept de preuve à la lumière de l'AI (PUF, 1999) and La Terre immobile (PUF, 2003); he also co-directed the book On the Steps of Galois (Hermann, 2014). He was awarded the Grand Prix of the French Academy of Sciences in 2015.

Conférence : Is talking about non-local correlations a form of random existence?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

According to Nicolas Gisin, there is a real chance, a "true" chance, which is different from the classical chance that some people have questioned. This objective, "true" chance is linked to other concepts and theories. It implies the existence of non-local correlations, of coordination at a distance (which is not communication). In this presentation, the famous Bell's inequalities will be taken up again, as well as other notions, such as those of non-locality and of "non-local everything". This is where the basic idea of quantum mechanics comes from, the idea of "entanglement" on which physicists have been working for about thirty years. All these notions will be put in relation with their classical counterpart and some of their implications in the history of philosophy. This notion of entanglement is itself linked to other well-known notions. In this talk, the notion of quantum non-locality will be discussed together with the description of correlations coming from entanglement which is described as a kind of wave propagating in a configuration space. Does this conception imply a non-deterministic universe whose mathematical representation is the one provided by intuitionistic mathematics?

Jean-Louis Dessalles Jean-Louis Dessalles
Artificial intelligence researcher

Jean-Louis Dessalles is a lecturer-researcher at Telecom Paris (Institut Polytechnique de Paris).
He works in particular on the theory of simplicity and its applications to cognitive sciences.
He is the author of several books, including a recent book in which he exposes the limits of artificial intelligence.

Conférence : Is the "fruit of chance" edible?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 13h45 - 14h30 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

Most configurations that result from pure chance leave us indifferent. Some others, however, do not: coincidences, anomalies, an accident affecting a close relative… On these occurrences, one is tempted to say: "it didn't just happen by more chance! " One may be tempted to invoke some sort of “synchronicity”, the hand of fate, a hidden cheating or conspiracy. Is there a criterion for deciding whether only chance was really responsible for what happened? Probability theory proves insufficient to answer this question. A more adequate answer is provided by algorithmic information theory.

Dédicace : Des intelligences très artificielles
Thursday 1 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15
Dédicace : Le fil de la vie
Thursday 1 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15

Jean-Louis Dufresne Jean-Louis Dufresne
Climate Physicist

Jean-Louis Dufresne is a climate physicist and his research activities focus on climate change and climate modelling. He studies in particular radiation exchanges in the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect, climatic variations and feedbacks from the climate system. He coordinated the development of the IPSL climate model for several years and participated in the latest work of the IPCC. He is a CNRS research director and works at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) and the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL).

Table ronde : Le hasard gouverne-t-il le temps qu'il fait ?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 16h — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Jean-Louis Israël Jean-Louis Israël

Jean-Louis Israël is an attorney at the Paris Bar. He holds a DEA in general private law from the University of Paris II, Panthéon-Assas, a DESS in common market law from the University of Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne and a degree in History and Geography from the University of Paris X Nanterre.

Table ronde : Comment définir le hasard en termes juridiques ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 10h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Jean-Luc Gautero Jean-Luc Gautero
Philosopher of Science

Jean-Luc Gautero holds a doctorate in mathematics and is associate professor in philosophy of sciences at the Department of Philosophy of Université Côte d’Azur. He conducts his research in particular about the relationship between philosophy and science fiction, at the Center for Research in History of Ideas.

Conférence : Can the science of science fiction be the science of chance?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 16h - 16h45 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

For the general public, science fiction refers to spaceships and aliens; it is therefore seen as a fiction mainly about physics or biology; it is not immediately associated with a science such as probability theory, the science of chance. Yet, without going as far as Boris Eizykman, who wrote in 1981 that science fiction should be called stochastic fiction, I shall argue that many science fiction texts, including some classics, give importance to the science of chance, to the point that it is possible to approach the history and philosophy of probability theory through the prism of science fiction.

Dédicace : Univers mathématiques
Saturday 3 july 2021, 16h45 - 17h30

Jean-Pascal Capp Jean-Pascal Capp
Molecular Biology Researcher

Jean-Pascal Capp is an associated professor at the National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA) in Toulouse, an engineering school member of the Federal University of Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées, where he teaches molecular biology. He has been interested in molecular, cellular and tissue phenomena that cause cancer since his doctoral thesis on genetic abnormalities in cancer cells. He is the author of two books on cancer (Belin, 2012) and stem cells (Materiology, 2015), as well as numerous scientific publications on cancer. He developed an original concept based on the initial disruption of tissue equilibrium, breaking with a very genetic view of cancer. He does not deny an important role of mutations and other genetic modifications, but does not consider them necessary or sufficient to trigger the process which would be above all a tissue event. He is also a researcher at the "Toulouse Biotechnology Institute" research center, a laboratory supervised by INSA, INRAE and CNRS.

Conférence : What is the role of chance in the appearance of cancers?
Friday 2 july 2021, 11h30 - 12h15 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

What is the part of responsibility in the appearance of cancers of the intrinsic and random, and therefore inevitable, cellular events and of environmental factors such as certain chemical compounds or certain radiations, which it is possible to protect against? This is the issue of a scientific debate launched in 2015 by a resounding scientific publication which has seen many developments since then. Ultimately, the question is whether to invest massively in prevention actions. This debate, focused on the role of genetic mutations in DNA, actually masks a set of other random phenomena which deserve to be mentioned in the appearance of cancers, in particular when we observe that healthy tissues may contain cells with multiple mutations thought to promote the development of cancer. We must therefore admit the existence of other early events of non-genetic origin and which are also intrinsically random. Finally, the observation of a great genetic and non-genetic heterogeneity between the cells of the same tumor confronts us with a very complex situation where different types of random phenomena are intertwined. Chance therefore certainly has a large place in carcinogenesis, but each of these random phenomena may have their role accentuated by exposure to environmental factors.

Jean-Paul Delahaye Jean-Paul Delahaye

Jean-Paul Delahaye is Professor Emeritus at the University of Lille and a researcher at the CRISTAL laboratory (Centre de recherche en informatique signal et automatique de Lille, UMR CNRS 9189). His work focuses on sequence transformation algorithms (Thesis), on the use of logic in Artificial Intelligence (expert systems, Prolog language), on the computational theory of games (iterated games, simulation of social systems, study of cooperation), and on algorithmic information theory (Kolmogorov complexity theory, computational centent) with applications to bioinformatics and finance. He is currently working on cryptographic currencies and "blockchain technology". He is also interested in ethical issues in science and was a member of the CNRS Ethics Committee (COMETS) from 2016 to 2021. He has supervised 20 theses. He is the author 22 books, some of which are intended for a wide public. In 1998, he received the Prix d'Alembert from the Société Mathématique de France and, in 1999, the Prix Auteur de la Culture scientifique from the Ministry of National Education and Research. He writes the monthly column Logique et calcul (6 pages) in the journal Pour la science (French version of Scientific American). He also runs a blog ( dedicated to "Complexities".

Conférence : What is a public source of chance?
Friday 2 july 2021, 10h - 10h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Public sources of random numbers, unfalsifiable and controllable after the fact, protocols such as drug testing, lottery draws or jury selection. 
lottery draws or jury selection. Many ideas and results have recently been recently been proposed for this production of public chance, leading to the development of reliable and robust random beacons.

Dédicace : Les mathématiciens se plient au jeu
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30
Dédicace : Pythagore à la plage : les nombres dans un transat
Friday 2 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30
Dédicace : Le fascinant nombre pi
Friday 2 july 2021, 13h - 13h45
Dédicace : Les mathématiciens se plient au jeu
Saturday 3 july 2021, 15h15 - 16h

Jean-Philippe Gimenez Jean-Philippe Gimenez

Jean-Philippe Gimenez is a traveler, an explorer, a morning person, an optimist, a sun catcher, a lover of the backlight. Above all, he is a photographer and filmmaker. His career began in 1991 as a children's photographer. He started to cover weddings, to take family pictures. Today, Jean-Philippe works for major brands as well as for professional models.

Jean-Philippe Uzan Jean-Philippe Uzan

Jean-Philippe Uzan is director of research in theoretical physics at the CNRS. Specialist in gravitation and cosmology, he works at the Paris Institute of Astrophysics. He was deputy director of the Institut Henri Poincaré from 2013 to 2017. He has published more than a hundred research papers on many aspects of cosmology, from the most theoretical to the interpretation of the most recent observations. He received the Paul Langevin Prize (2010) and the prestigious Georges Lemaître Prize (2015). He has taught for several years at the École normale supérieure de Paris and the École des mines de Paris, as well as in international thematic schools. He has been collaborating with the University of Cape Town in South Africa for the past 15 years. In 2017, he publishes The Secret Harmony of the Universe and Big Bang in 2018.

Conférence : Is our sky the fruit of chance?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 12h15 - 13h — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

The position of our galaxy in the universe may seem contingent to us, so that the contemporary cosmological model assumes that we do not occupy a privileged place in space. However, is our position - in space and time - completely due to chance? This question will invite us to consider the role of quantum mechanics in the primordial universe, then that of the emergence of conditions favourable to the appearance of life and, in a much more speculative way, the apparent fine-tuning of the theories of nature and the place of our universe in a larger structure often referred to as multiverse.

Dédicace : Big-bang : comprendre l'univers depuis ici et maintenant
Saturday 3 july 2021, 13h - 13h45
Dédicace : L'harmonie secrète de l'Univers
Saturday 3 july 2021, 13h - 13h45
Dédicace : L'importance des constantes
Saturday 3 july 2021, 13h - 13h45

Jean-Sébastien Steyer Jean-Sébastien Steyer
Researcher - Paleontologist

Jean-Sébastien Steyer is paleontologist at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (MNHN), Paris. He is working on Life before the dinosaurs, with special emphasis on Pangean faunas, and on extinct species reconstruction. Beyond his research articles, he also writes popular books such as "Earth before the dinosaurs" (Indiana Univ Press, 2010) and popular articles about sciences in science-fiction. Between two fieldworks in Africa and Asia, this National Geographic Grantee is also chronicler in the French version of "Scientific American".

Conférence : Are extinctions avoidable?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 12h15 - 13h — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

The 6th extinction is in progress but it is in fact the Nr. 7 regarding the geological time scale. In many discourses, we generalize by speaking about “unavoidable” extinctions. But what is a massive extinction? A critical look on the curves of biodiversity evolution through time shows, yet without minimizing the importance of the extinction in progress, that life crises are stochastic and multifactorial events: they occurred several times during evolution and impacted various clades in a differential manner, sometimes totally. Asteroid impacts, volcanism, eustatism (sea level variations), geomagnetic inversions, global climate changes, the causes are often various and their studies look like a good Agatha Christie’s novel with several murders at the same time. Pollution, deforestation, overfishing, greenhouse gases, the 7th extinction is clearly due to humans, but it is not the first time in evolution one species impacts so much the biodiversity. And even if “life finds a way” it is not the reason to stay inactive.

Dédicace : Anatomie comparée des espèces imaginaires
Thursday 1 july 2021, 13h - 13h45
Dédicace : La Terre avant les dinosaures
Thursday 1 july 2021, 13h - 13h45

Jérôme Rosanvallon Jérôme Rosanvallon

Jérôme Rosanvallon is Program Director at the College International de Philosophie and Professor of Philosophy at the Créteil Academy. He co-organizes the “Major Lectures” of CIPh and co-directs the “Epistémè” section of the journal Rue Descartes. In particular, he works at the intersection of the philosophy of science (mainly physics and biology) and the philosophy of Deleuze and Guattari, on which he has published numerous articles as well as a two-volume introductory work entitled Deleuze & Guattari à vitesse infinie (Ollendorff & desseins, 2009 and 2016). Jérôme co-edited the last issue (99) of the review "Rue Descartes" devoted to "La métaphysique de Deleuze & Guattari : déjà par-delà nature et culture", available end of June on Cairn.

Conférence : Is randomness fundamental ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 16h45 - 17h30 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

Randomness is generally considered according to a triple negation defining it in a different way each time. It would be the positive flipside of either the absence of finality, a lack of determinism, or a defect of knowledge (so-called "subjective" chance). In the first case, it would be opposed to God, in the second case to an intrinsic necessity, in the third case to an infinitely knowable reality. Each of these oppositions, however, declines the same underlying alternative: is chance only an effect derived from a reality that is causally or finally determined, or does it itself constitute a fundamental aspect of it? In one case, only the random effects of determinism have to be explained, while in the other, only the determined effects of randomness need be explained. Is this alternative itself indeterminate? Starting from a variation that can be qualified as random according to the triple point of view indicated, Darwinian natural selection theorizes these determined effects of chance and shows that a science of life is only possible by taking the second path of the alternative. It remains to be seen whether the living is itself only a random effect of a given physico-chemical reality or whether, on the contrary, the structure of the theory allowing us to think this can and must be generalised to the entire reality.

Joël Sebban Joël Sebban

Joel Sebban is a historian specializing in the study of the secularization process and interfaith relations in France and the United States. He is an alumnus of École Normale Supérieure and a former Postdoctoral Fellow at Harvard University. His first book, based on his Ph.D. dissertation, will be published next January under the title: "The Invention of the 'Judeo-Christian Civilization.' Religion and Politics in Modern France." In stark contrast with the modern advocates of a "clash of civilizations" who posit a religious origin of Western modernity, he argues that religious communities had to reinterpret their traditions according to the values of modern secular Nation-States.

Conférence : How does chance affect history?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 12h15 - 13h — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

Chance affects history in a double way: it influences the course of events and our knowledge of the past. What would historians know about Ancient Egypt if, by chance, a French soldier from the Napoleonic army had not found a stone that allowed Jean-François Champollion to decipher hieroglyphs? Yet, historians have long been reluctant to study the influence of chance on history. History emerged as a science in the nineteenth century on the postulation that historians should only investigate “positive” facts whose origins were determinate. Modern generations of historians have opened new research avenues. They have written the history of chance and tried to comprehend this immaterial part of history, that could be called “hazard,” borrowing an Arabic word meaning “dice,” and by extension a “science of chance.”

Joseph Roy Joseph Roy
Technical Affairs Manager

Joseph Roy is brother, son and grandson of watchmakers. He graduated from ESEO (Ecole Supérieure d'Electronique de l'Ouest - Angers/France) and after 2 years spent in Ivory Coast as INSET teacher (Institut National Supérieur de l'Enseignement Technique) in Yamoussoukro as part of cooperation, he joined BODET in Trémentines as an engineer. He then became responsible for R&D (Hardware and Software) and then recently moved to a position of Technical Affairs and External Relations Manager. BODET is a French family group created in 1868 and manages for 5 generations time in all its forms. BODET is a member of France Horlogerie and has been mandated by this organisation for 14 years to ensure the maintenance of the pilot timetables located in the TDF center in Allouis. Joseph was appointed by BODET to carry out this task. This large-wave broadcast on the 162kHz frequency named ALS162 is, with the talking clock, one of the only two means of broadcasting the French Legal Time throughout the metropolitan territory. This diffusion is controlled remotely by the French Time Frequency Laboratory (Besançon and the Paris Observatory). Thus the equipment is guaranteed to have an hour traced, reliable and accurate.

Table ronde : La mesure du temps supporte-t-elle le hasard ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 16h45 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Joséphine Jobard Joséphine Jobard

With her literary high school diploma (baccalauréat) in hand, Joséphine joined the Ecole Boulle in 2016. After three years of study, just turning 21 years of age, she obtained her Diploma in Artistic Woodcarving (Diplôme des Métiers d’Art), with an innovative project mixing shadows and sculpture. From academic drawing, to comic strips, to sketchbooks and travel books; illustration is an important part of her everyday life.

Juliette Mignot Juliette Mignot

Juliette Mignot is a researcher in oceanography at the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, specializing in climate variations on time scales of the order of 10 to 50 years, and their predictability. She is particularly interested in the origin of these modulations in the North Atlantic basin and their impact on adjacent continents, particularly Europe and the Sahel. As such, she actively collaborates with several Senegalese universities where she supervises students and coordinates research projects. She works mainly with numerical climate models and carries out climate prediction experiments on decadal time scales.

Table ronde : Le hasard gouverne-t-il le temps qu'il fait ?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 16h — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Kinga Morsanyi Kinga Morsanyi
Cognition Researcher

Kinga Morsanyi is a Senior Lecturer in Mathematical Cognition at Loughborough University, UK. Her research concerns the development of mathematical abilities and reasoning, and the interplay between intuitions and conscious reflection. She is also interested in how emotional states (for example, anxiety) might influence reasoning, decision making and mathematical performance, and how these skills might be improved by training. She also has an interest in atypical development (in particular, mathematics learning difficulties and autism). Before taking up her current position at Loughborough University, she had held lecturing and research positions at Queen’s University Belfast, the University of Cambridge, and the University of Geneva.

Conférence : Do children misperceive randomness?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

From a young age, children are familiar with random patterns, such as raindrops on a window or falling snowflakes. They also have experience with random generators, such as dice and coins. Understanding randomness and chance is also central to playing games and sports, and for developing a concept of fairness. Evidence suggests that even babies have some basic intuitions about probability. Nevertheless, a key characteristic of random events is that, although the identity of the potential outcomes is known, the sequence of outcomes unfolds in a manner that is unpredictable to the observer. So how do we develop a good understanding of randomness? Do older children have a better understanding of random processes than younger children? What are the typical ways of misperceiving randomness, and how can we overcome our misconceptions?

Laurence Honnorat Laurence Honnorat
CEO Innovaxiom

After a background in physical sciences, management and communication and fifteen years of experience in the industry, Laurence Honnorat presides over Innovaxiom, founded in 2007. Innovaxiom, a strategy consulting company, builds and implements projects in science. Laurence Honnorat is also at the origin of the creation in 2012 of Innovaxiom Corp, based in Boston. She is co-founder of the Out Of Atmosphere Foundation for space exploration. In 2016 Laurence created, a network of scientific speakers, and in 2017, an exhibition of online photographic collections. In 2018, she launches TimeWorldEvent, a world science congress, and in 2020, the general interest association in response to the eponymous YouTube channel, created in 2011 and of which she is the producer. She works as a strategy consultant, particularly in industry, on issues related to anticipation and in higher education where she addresses the themes of idea emergence, communication and project management. In 2019, she received the Alexandre Ananoff prize from the Société Astronomique de France for her actions in favour of the valorisation of space culture.

Conférence : Opening session
Thursday 1 july 2021, 9h15 - 10h — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Laurent de Wilde Laurent de Wilde
Pianist, composer, writer

Internationally renowned jazz pianist, Laurent de Wilde has been described as a exciting and passionate musician. Born in the United States in 1960, de Wilde spent his formative years (1964 to 1983) in France where he was immersed in French culture, music and literature eventually studying philosophy at the “Ecole Normale Supérieure” in Paris. Returning to the United States on a scholarship to further his musical knowledge, he studied jazz piano in New York where he resided for eight years. In the late 1980's he recorded his first albums with trumpet player Eddie Henderson and drummers Jack DeJohnette and Billy Hart. Returning to Paris in 1991, he continued his musical career touring throughout Europe, the United States and Japan. In 1993 he was awarded the Django Reinhardt Prize and in 1998 the “Victoires du Jazz”. In this period he also wrote his first book, a biography of Thelonious Monk that was published by Gallimard in 1996. The book received critical acclaim and has been translated and published in the United States, the U.K., Japan, Spain and Italy. After the turn on the century, de Wilde pursued a number of varied and intense projects including his Acoustic Trio, producing the album "Over the Clouds", In this period he also devoted himself to electronic music, a genre that challenged and inspired him to record six albums including “Fly” and “Fly Superfly”. He collaborated with artists such as the slammer/composer Abd Al Malik and comedian Jacques Gamblin. He ventured into TV with two documentaries for Arte on Thelonious Monk and Charles Mingus and released his second book "The Heroes of Sound " (published by Grasset), a saga of the inventors of keyboards in the twentieth century. Finally, to mark the centennial of Thelonious Monk's birthday and the twentieth anniversary of the publication of his Thelonious Monk biography, de Wilde's album titled "New Monk Trio" has been released.

Conférence : What's the part of random in music?
Friday 2 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

in progress

Dédicace : Les fous du son
Friday 2 july 2021, 18h15 - 19h
Dédicace : Monk
Friday 2 july 2021, 18h15 - 19h

Laurent Pujo-Menjouet Laurent Pujo-Menjouet

Laurent Pujo-Menjouet is a doctor in mathematics and associate professor at université Lyon 1. Expert in dynamical systems, his specialty is mathematics applied to biology and medicine. He works for example on blood pathologies, radiobiology, prion and Alzheimer’s disease. He gave more than a hundred conferences in France and abroad.

Conférence : Does random rule our relationships?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 13h45 - 14h30 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Almost half of all marriages end by a divorce. Who should be blame? A bad luck? Something else? Are we ready to undergo these fatal statistics and just let it go? The answer is no! Mathematicians found the key to the flourishing relationship. Do you want to know their secret? Through several examples, we will show how it is possible to get our hands back on our love life. And once the right parameters totally under control, all the solutions will be before us.

Dédicace : The game of love without the chance
Saturday 3 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15

Laurent Thirouin Laurent Thirouin
Professor of French Literature

A former student of the École Normale Supérieure, Laurent Thirouin is Professor Emeritus of 17th century French literature at the Université Lumière Lyon 2 and is the author of various works on Pascal's work (Le Hasard et les règles. Le modèle du jeu dans la pensée de Pascal, 1991, reprinted 2011; Pensées sur la justice, La Découverte, 2011; Le Défaut de la méthode. Lecture des Pensées selon leur ordre, Champion, 2015; Lectures russes de Pascal, hier et aujourd'hui, ed. by F. Lesourd and L. Thirouin, Garnier, 2020) and the intellectual life in the Port-Royal milieu: the moral work of Pierre Nicole (Pierre Nicole, Essais de morale, reedition, revue et corrigée, Les Belles Lettres, coll. "Encre marine, 2016; Traité de la Comédie et autres pièces d'un procès du théâtre, Champion, 1998), the quarrel of the theater (L'Aveuglement salutaire. Le réquisitoire contre le théâtre dans la France classique, H. Champion, 1997, reprinted 2007), Augustinism in the 17th century (Les Écoles de pensée religieuse à l'époque moderne, texts compiled by Y. Krumenacker and L. Thirouin, Lyon, RESEA, 2006).

Table ronde : Aimons-nous jouer avec le hasard ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 14h30 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié
Dédicace : Le hasard et les règles : le modele du jeu dans la pensée de Pascal
Friday 2 july 2021, 16h - 16h45

Leïla Schneps Leïla Schneps

Leila Schneps received her B.A. at Harvard University in 1983, and then moved to France to pursue her Ph.D. in mathematics at the University of Paris, where she later became a researcher at the French Center for Scientific Research. Although her main area is pure mathematics, she became interested some years ago in the way in which mathematics is used in criminal trials and medical diagnostics, two areas in which a close examination raised major concerns about serious errors being made due to misunderstandings and misuses of probabilities. Together with Coralie Colmez, she published a book called Math on Trial (Basic Books, 2013) detailing 12 cases of mathematical errors leading to miscarriages of justice from the end of the 19th century to today. Since then, she has become involved in working with the French police on efforts to bring Bayesian networks and artificial intelligence into the crime investigation community, and also in publicizing the problems with the current medical practice of rigidly diagnosing shaken baby syndrome in the presence of certain symptoms based on a faulty understanding of the results of certain statistical studies, leading to the arrest of parents and the breaking up of families.

Conférence : How to judge the rarity of a coincidence?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 13h45 - 14h30 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

There is a particular type of court case that is characterized by a lack of concrete evidence. There may have been, for example, one or even several deaths, with no solid indication that they were due to murder. In such cases, the prosecution bases its arguments essentially on the principle of probability, asserting that if the accused were truly innocent, then we would be faced with an unbelievable coincidence. At this point, a proper calculation of the probability of the observed events is crucial. But when making such a calculation, we often come upon some very surprising observations, often due to the fact that when intuitively assessing probabilities, we tend to forget that we live among so many millions of other human beings that any strange thing that can happen probably actually will happen somewhere, at some point. Then, once the probability of the observed events is correctly computed, we must not forget to compare it with the probability that the accused is really guilty. A classic fallacy consists in assuming that if the probability of an event is minuscule and yet the event occurs anyway, "some must have done it on purpose". These illusions and false intutions lead regularly to grievous miscarriages of justice.

Table ronde : Comment définir le hasard en termes juridiques ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 10h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire
Dédicace : Les Maths au tribunal
Thursday 1 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15

Louise Delange Louise Delange

Since her childhood Louise’s studies have been guided by handcrafts and her drawing skills. In 2016 she enters the ESAA Boulle, in Paris, where she spent three years, and recently graduated in chair making. She is currently pursuing her desires of learning and experimenting new techniques through a training in casting and modeling. In parallel she is developing personal projects about drawing, ceramics, botany… keeping a curious eye on intellectual and everyday sciences.

Louise Marc Louise Marc
PhD student in medical physics

Louise Marc is a PhD-candidate at the University hospital of Zurich in the department of Medical Physics, more concretely in cancer treatment by radiotherapy. During her Bachelor studies in Physics at Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany), an exchange year at École Centrale Paris followed by a Master in Applied Physics at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), she could get in touch with different domains at the interface between physics and medicine. Determined to improve and innovate in the health field with a physicist's approach, she is interested in interdisciplinary questions. Her current research is about how to improve the conventional radiotherapy, i.e. photontherapy, in terms of precision through the use of protons. The so-called proton therapy is more costly but generally much more precise. Thus, it potentially represents in combination with the use of photons, a general improvement for radiotherapy in clinics. Louise is passionated about music, and lives her passion particularly by playing the piano since her childhood.

Table ronde : Peut-on créer sans hasard ?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 11h30 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Ludwig Crespin Ludwig Crespin
Philosopher and physicist

Ludwig Crespin, PhD in Philosophy, is an Associate Member of the Philosophies and Rationalities Laboratory of the University of Clermont Auvergne, where he has been conducting research on consciousness and dreams at the interface of philosophy of mind and cognitive sciences since 2010. He has just published Rêve et conscience. *Quel apport des sciences du rêve à la philosophie de la conscience ?* (Classique Garnier, 2020)

Conférence : Are dreams randomnly created ?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 15h15 - 16h — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

Are dream just the same as Rorschachs tests, or even as these suggestive rock formations whose content is only derived from the meaning we project on them ? That’s at least what believes neuropsychiatrist Allan Hobson who coined the "activation synthesis" theory : to him, dreams are not, as Freud would have it, the fruit of a intention hidden away from the dreamer, but rather the outcome of the random activation of neurons in the cerebral cortex to which the brain does its best to attribute a meaning.Against such a theory, we will show that while scientific research on dreams can hardly establish that dreams manifest an underlying intention, it does give very good arguments to maintain that they are not a pure product of chance. It is hard to get, for instance, how the formal coherence of dream imagery could be created by chance when it is well established that it is made up of highly diverse memories. To put it differently, dreams may not be meaningful in the way that words of the language are, but they have at least something of a syntax. And yet, one must remind what we call the dream : it does not only consist of an involuntary hallucinatory production, but it also encompasses a set of cogitations, reflections, inferences and decisions that are brought to the dreamer's mind by this involuntary imagery and which seems to be analogous to the wakeful cognitive activity.These cogitations do seem to indicate intentions in the course of the dream. As for the characters that come across our dreams, there is riveting way to find out whether they think : testing their insight and their words by questioning them in lucid dreams.

Madina Rival Madina Rival
Full Professor of Management

Madina Rival graduated Sciences Po Paris, was a student of the “Ecole Normale”, holds an “aggregation” in economics and management ans a management science PHD from La Sorbonne University. Today, she is a University Professor at the National Conservatory for Arts and Craf (Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Cnam University). Specialized in management and public innovation, she is in charge of a school diploma and a master’s degree (2nd year) on the subject. Researcher in management sciences, she also is in charge of the interdisciplinary research laboratory in action sciences (Lirsa, 210 researchers). Author of numerous research articles internationally, she works on lobbying, the making of public politics, the different aspects of management and public innovation. Madina Rival is currently supervising five doctoral theses on these subjects.

Conférence : Can chance be managed?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h - 10h45 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Today, chance evokes gambling, the search for strong emotions, the lure of winning and even the ultimate feeling of living. Chance is then of the order of the living and the emotion. In management, we don't talk about chance, we talk about risk. Risk is a probability, so it is a rational calculation. More precisely, it is the probability that an event will occur, the consequences of which are feared. Risk management is based on a simple principle: we evaluate the probability that the problem will occur, we quantify the damage it may cause, and we look for solutions that cost less. Risk management has developed in many areas: we can think primarily of production, where we can avoid accidents to people, but we can also manage financial risk or legal and social risks, for example. However, the calculation of probabilities often lags behind what organizations experience. Chance, when it combines events and human actions, is also present in the effects of crisis on organizations; a one-off crisis, or a crisis that lasts according to the evolution and exchanges of living beings. In the face of crises, proven methods of risk management are not suitable, because chance is precisely out of the question. But if chance can provoke crisis, it provokes above all new forms and figures, and for those who are aware of it in time, it can be a source of opportunities, creativity and innovation, which are also outside the field of risk management. Thus, if chance is linked to the game of life and emotion, it is also because it causes a hitherto controllable universe to leave - at least in appearance - through the emergence of another universe in the making and whose rules we do not know. Chance provokes irreversibility, and in this it is opposed to risk management, whose main function is, on the contrary, to maintain the status quo. With the irruption of chance in its management, the organization has to face evolutions that frighten because they change routines and solutions to the established efficiency. Contrary to change projects, chance cannot be controlled or decided upon, it arises by issuing a challenge, and the art lies in anticipating in time the new rules of the game it imposes.

Manuel Gaulhiac Manuel Gaulhiac
PhD student in musicology

Manuel Gaulhiac is a PhD student in musicology at Sorbonne-Université in Paris. He works on harmonic descriptors and acoustic modeling of harmonic phenomena. He graduated from the École Polytechnique in fundamental mathematics, and obtained the master Atiam (Acoustics, Signal Processing and Computer Science Applied to Music) of the Ircam (a French institute of research in musicology and acoustics) as well as the master in musicology of the Sorbonne, which he devoted to the music of Alfred Schnittke. Manuel Gaulhiac is also a pianist and a music critic for the Bachtrack website.

Table ronde : Peut-on créer sans hasard ?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 11h30 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Marc-André Selosse Marc-André Selosse

Marc-André SELOSSE is professor at Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris), and at Universities of Kunming (China) and Gdansk (Poland). His researches focus on the ecology and evolution of mycorrhizas, a major symbiosis between soil fungi and roots of most land plants. He also has a general interest for symbiosis and its evolution. He is head of the French Botanical Society, member of the French Academy of Agriculture and editor of several international scientific journals. He published outreach books in French on microbiota (Jamais seul, 2017) and tannins (Les goûts et les couleurs du monde, 2019).

Conférence : Are associations between living species random?
Friday 2 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

The living world is made of associations: parasites and symbionts surround in number each organism, each species. Even more, these associations shape the functioning of the organism, its ecological and evolutionary success, so that at the end one can doubt on the relevance of the notion of organism as such! But how did these associations emerge? And how did they come to occupy such a prevalent role? The emergence of associations between living things is the result of chance, but also of natural selection. The same game between chance (especially drift) and selection is found in their subsequent evolution. It allows in particular the emergence of dependence, this so frequent state where one function can no longer be performed without the partner. Fungi and plants, bacteria and animals, animals and plants or fungi: thanks to multiple examples, we will discover the evolutionary pathways of associations between living things.

Dédicace : Jamais seul : ces microbes qui construisent les plantes, les animaux et les civilisations
Friday 2 july 2021, 15h15 - 16h
Dédicace : Les goûts et les couleurs du monde : une histoire naturelle des tannins, de l'écologie à la santé
Friday 2 july 2021, 15h15 - 16h

Marc-Eric Bobillier Chaumon Marc-Eric Bobillier Chaumon

Marc-Eric Bobillier Chaumon is a professor at the CNAM, holder of the Chair of Occupational Psychology and member of the Center for Research on Work and Development. His work focuses on the digital transformations of work, and more particularly on the new forms of activity (nomadic, distant, fragmented/shared, dematerialized, mediatized, robotized work...) that are deployed with these devices. It is interested in the uses and impacts of emerging technologies (AI, pervasive systems, immersive reality, robots...) in socio-domestic and professional activities, and in particular in their conditions of acceptance located -in and by the activity- as well as their effects on the quality of life at work and the well-being of employees. These field research-interventions, carried out within the framework of multidisciplinary scientific and industrial consortiums, have given rise to several books and research articles.

Conférence : What is the role of chance in digital dispersion at work?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 16h45 - 17h30 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

The question of the use of technologies, through their status and their pre-eminent role in professional activity, raises questions in terms of the fragmentation and dispersion of work, the disarticulation of spheres of life and activities (remote work, telework, management of (de)connection), and temporal pressure (over/hyper-connection). The individual thus finds himself immersed in the sandstone of interruptions and digital demands in professional contexts that he neither knows nor masters, and for which he must nevertheless deploy the appropriate resources to deal with them. This dispersion of work is often perceived as a constraint because it generates a significant mental and psychosocial load to adjust, with significant impacts on well-being and the loss of meaning of work. However, finding oneself by chance in another context can also opportunistically become a resource, by encouraging creativity through serendipity, i.e. the ability to make an unexpected discovery by chance and to grasp its usefulness.  Everything depends on the control, the room for manoeuvre and the power to act that the individual has.

Marc Himbert Marc Himbert
Physicist and metrologist

Marc Himbert is a physicist, professor of metrology. He graduated from “L’école normale supérieure” in Paris (F), was appointed ten years as CNRS researcher in atomic physics and quantum optics. In 1992 LeCnam awarded him the chair of “Metrology”. He is the scientific manager of the Joint metrology laboratory established between LeCnam and the LNE. Marc Himbert is since 2009 member of the National Academy of Technology of France (NATF).

Conférence : Does the measurement make it possible to control chance?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

The purpose of the measure is to set benchmarks, whether it is to establish scientific construction, to achieve technological prowess, to characterize the terms of trade, to model phenomena and to serve as a basis for decision-making. Its ideally objective and reproducible character establishes certainties, pacifies interactions, provides evidence, supports arguments... and gives rise to forms of quantophrenia. Since 2019, metrological references all refer to the constants of nature. But one of the key words in metrology is "uncertainty"! This quantitative concept, which is essential to give meaning to a result and to exploit it, refers to a rigorous evaluation methodology, consensual on a worldwide scale, taking into account the intrinsic variability of quantities, the reality of measurement systems, the quality of the references used, the ambient conditions... and the age of the captain. Uncertainty is the basis of risk assessment: a form of hazard control? Photo Credit © Dircom Cnam – S. Villain

Marc Lachièze-Rey Marc Lachièze-Rey

Marc Lachièze-Rey is a french astrophysicist, cosmologist and theorist at CNRS, working in the laboratory 'AstroParticule and Cosmology' (APC) in Paris. He also teaches at the 'Ecole Centrale' Paris. His scientific publications interests include the topology of space-time, gravity and dark matter. His most important publications include: Au-delà de l'Espace et du temps (2003), Voyager dans le temps : La physique moderne et la temporalité (2013), Einstein à la plage (2015).

Conférence : Is there chance in cosmic evolution?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 10h - 10h45 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

In progress

Dédicace : L'âge de l'Univers
Saturday 3 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30

Marie-Antoinette Mélières Marie-Antoinette Mélières
Physicist and climatologist

Marie-Antoinette Mélières obtained a PhD in Physical Chemistry and a State Doctorate in Physics at the Joseph Fourier University of Grenoble (currently Grenoble-Alpes). She has carried out research in the fields of molecular spectroscopy, atmospheric physics, but also in the field of environmental sciences (mercury, radioelement and aerosol cycles) and climate (studies focused on sedimentary archives). She has taught at the University of Grenoble-Alpes in fundamental physics and then in climate sciences. She was scientific manager of the CNRS Saga-Science Climat site from 1999 to 2007. She initiated and wrote the Lettre Changement Global under the aegis of the Ministry of Research and the Academy of Sciences (1994-2008).

Table ronde : Le hasard gouverne-t-il le temps qu'il fait ?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 16h — Amphi Jean-Fourastié
Dédicace : Climats : Passé, présent, futur
Thursday 1 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15

Marie-Neige Cordonnier Marie-Neige Cordonnier
Assistant editor-in-chief

Trained as a biophysicist, Marie-Neige Cordonnier edited Les Génies de la Science, a quarterly journal of science history, for ten years before becoming editor, then assistant editor-in-chief of Pour la Science magazine. She is particularly involved in biology, medicine and the history of science. She is co-author of the book Institut Pasteur - Recherche d'aujourd'hui, médecine de demain (La Martinière, 2017), with Gérard Lambert and Émilie Gillet.

Marie Lacomme Marie Lacomme
PhD in Philosophy of Science

Marie Lacomme is a PhD student in philosophy of science at the Sphère laboratory (University of Paris). She holds a master's degree in philosophy from the University of Panthéon-Sorbonne. She has also studied evolutionary biology at the UPMC and the MNHN, and has done research internships in primatology (MNHN). Her research focuses on the place given to human beings in relation to other animal species, and in particular to other primate species, both in the natural sciences and in the humanities and social sciences.

Table ronde : Peut-on créer sans hasard ?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 11h30 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Marie-Laure Desjardins Marie-Laure Desjardins
Journalist and art critic

Marie-Laure Desjardins is a journalist and art critic. Chief editor of the art magazine "Cimaise" for 4 years, she has founded in 2009 ArtsHebdoMedias, a website dedicated to contemporary arts ( Then, in 2020, she created OMNI (for Non Identified Media Object), a new media concept entirely dedicated to artists word. A PhD in Arts, she is an associate researcher at the MICA (Art, Design and Scenography), University of Bordeaux Montaigne Research Department, and also at the ACTE Institute (Arts, Sciences and Societies), Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne. A specialist in artistic practices dealing with the interaction between art and science, she is currently codirecting the scientific review online "ASTASA" ( and is also a lecturer at Paris 1 University in "Online creation and network practices". A member of the AICA (the International Art Critics Association) she works also as a curator for art exhibitions.

Conférence : Does art like chance?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 9h15 - 10h — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

The anecdote is old: with an angry gesture, the painter throws in the towel! The dog, which until then had refused to do so, immediately drools generously. Although no work by Protogenes has reached us since its creation in the fourth century B.C., the little story - told by Montaigne in the Essays - points out very early on the crucial presence of chance in creation and suggests that art, like all other areas of life, cannot escape it. From antiquity to the present day, many works thus write a certain history of art that borrows from unpredictability and unpredictability. A history of art full of processes discovered inadvertently, of processes imagined following an accident, of random practices adopted out of conviction. Sometimes radically excluded, sometimes used as a leaven, and even as an explicit, even exclusive means, chance is legitimized in art. Whether it is to escape reason or to get closer to nature, to explore the subconscious or to cultivate the imagination, artists are attentive to its signs and invent practices capable of escaping them but revealing like the divinatory rites of the ancient Delos. Aristotle asserted that art loves chance and vice versa. It remains to be ascertained.

Mathieu Corteel Mathieu Corteel
Philosopher and historian of science

Mathieu Corteel, philosopher and historian of science, is a research associate at Sciences Po and a visiting scholar at Harvard as an Arthur Sachs Fellow. A specialist in the history of statistics applied to health and the epistemology of medical technologies (AI and Big Data), he is currently involved in the CrisOrg project and directs the ProbaPol project at Sciences Po. He will soon pursue his project of an epistemological history of the digital method in medicine at the Harvard History of Science Department, which follows his first essay Le Hasard et le Pathologique published in September 2020 by Presses de SciencesPo. He is a member of the editorial board of the journal Multitudes, for which he recently coordinated issue 75 "Renaissance de la clinique" and issue 78 "Cultivons nos intelligences artificielles".

Conférence : What about art and medical science in the face of the randomness of disease?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

According to Hippocrates, without the medical art, "chance alone would settle the fate of the sick". By intervening with the patient, the physician brings his art into play in order to obviate the chance of the disease. Since ancient times, the ancients have thought of medical practice as a stochastic art (Stochastikê Technê) using conjecture to aim at the patient's cure. Thus, long before the law of large numbers conceptualized conjecture mathematically, it would seem that it was intuitively constituted in the art of healing. Is the conjectural judgement of the ancients reducible to the calculation of probabilities of the moderns? Is the persistent gap between the medical art and the medical sciences not to be found rather in a double epistemological relationship of the doctor to the chance of the disease? Between the degrees of certainty, which are based on the doctor's experience, and the statistics of the proponents of the numerical method, something like the conflict of the faculties of medical reason, which extends to the development of artificial intelligence, is at work.

Dédicace : Le hasard et le pathologique
Thursday 1 july 2021, 15h15 - 16h

Maxime Abolgassemi Maxime Abolgassemi
Professor and Writer

Maxime Abolgassemi teaches literature and general culture in preparatory classes at the lycée Chateaubriand in Rennes. He holds a doctorate in literature (University of Paris-Sorbonne) and an agrégé in modern literature, as well as a master's degree in theoretical physics (University Pierre-et-Marie-Curie). His work focuses on the "objective chance" of the Surrealists, the notion of counterfiction that he introduced, and democratic transparency (to which he is devoting a forthcoming book). In 2017, he published Nuit persane, a first novel that immerses the reader in Tehran in the last years before the Iranian Revolution.

Conférence : What the objective random is?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

If chance can be approached intellectually through Science or Philosophy, its attraction does not evaporate once it is grasped by concepts: it is also (or especially) experienced on an existential level. This is what André Breton sought to live in accordance with the project of his literary and cultural movement, Surrealism. The overwhelming encounter with a woman in the streets of Paris in 1926, who called herself "Nadja", opened a new literary quest, deployed in three works Nadja (1928), Les Vases communicants (1932) and L'Amour fou (1938). To understand this "objective chance", it will be interesting to return to the canonical example to think about the troubling coincidences, the famous tile falling on the poor passer-by... "Poor" or touched by wonder?

Dédicace : Nuit persane
Saturday 3 july 2021, 11h30 - 12h15

Maxime Guyot Maxime Guyot
Journalist and Videographer

Passionate about travel, extreme sports and cinema, Maxime Guyot is a journalist specialized in video. After studying Foreign Languages and Civilizations at INALCO, his love for documentaries and beautiful images led him to the European Institute of Journalism where he obtained a master's degree in Investigation and Major Reports. His curiosity led him to work for many editorial offices (France 2, M6, Voyages...) and to collaborate on news, music and adventure programs. Today he aspires to tell his own stories, guided by the desire to transmit an emotion, always through the lens.

Michael Craig Gradwell Michael Craig Gradwell

Michael is a communication trainer and coach at leading French engineering universities. He provides graduate and postgraduate level courses on creativity, interpersonal dynamics and team development, creative communication and innovative project management. He is a visiting professor of project management at Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, and Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa. He has also carried out missions for business and public administration in France, Germany and Italy. He works fluently in English, French and Italian. His current work ratio is 30% consulting and coaching, 30% teaching, 20% pro bono & 20% research and development.

Michel Viso Michel Viso

Michel Viso was a veterinarian for many years. He enrolled in Alfort Veterinary School in 1980 and the National Institute of Agronomical Research in 1981. He was chosen to be an astronaut by the French space agency, CNES, in 1985. He collaborated on the RHESUS Project in cooperation with NASA. His prospects of traveling to space evaporated in 1993 when NASA ended the project. He then went on to ensure scientific responsibility in animal physiological and biological space experiments performed in cooperation with the United States, Russia, and other partners. In 2004, CNES named him to the position of scientific manager for Exobiology, in preparation for French participation in the European project Exomars and future exploration missions in the solar system, including new projects on sample returns from Mars in the 2030s. He represents the CNES on COSPAR’s Panel for Planetary Protection. In June 2021, Michel Viso becomes Innovaxiom's scientific advisor.

Mickael Popelard Mickael Popelard
Professor of Literature

Mickaël Popelard is professor of early modern English literature at the University of Caen Normandie, France. He has published two monographs and several articles on Shakespeare's drama and Bacon's philosophy. He is currently translating some of Bacon's literary works into French (forthcoming).

Conférence : What does Shakespeare teach us about the games of love and chance?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h - 10h45 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

On the face of it, chance plays very little part in drama where the characters' every move is predetermined by the author. Yet, in his plays, Shakespeare repeteadly reminds the audience (and the reader) that our lives tend to be ruled by chance, rather than order. We may have our « exits and entrances », as Jaques famously proclaims in As You Like It, real life usually bears little relation to a perfectly choreographed theatrical performance. In this lecture, I will study the interplay between love, chance and fate in A Midsummer Night's Dream and a few other Shakespearean comedies with a view to shedding some light on how chance was conceived of in early modern England.

Nathalie Besson Nathalie Besson

Nathalie Besson is a researcher at the department of particle physics of the Institute for research on the fundamental laws of the Universe at the CEA/Saclay. She worked for almost 20 years in the collaboration that exploits the data recorded by the ATLAS detector installed around one of the collision points of the Large Proton Collider, the LHC, at CERN near Geneva.Her area of interest is the standard model of particle physics, specifically the study of the W and Z bosons. She has recently joined the LISA mission, which will be the first space-based gravitational wave detector. In addition, she is involved in disseminating knowledge, in particle physics among other things, through lectures, scientific events, in schools and through teaching,.

Conférence : Higgs Boson, I presume?
Friday 2 july 2021, 9h15 - 10h — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Albert Einstein, one of the fathers of quantum mechanics, could not quite accept it: "God doesn't play dice", he summed up at the 1927 Solvay congress which brought together the top physicists. And yet subatomic phenomena, described by quantum mechanics, are governed by probabilities. Random drawing. Chance. But then how can particle physicists claim to have discovered the Higgs boson? What does it cover? What do the results look like and how do we interpret them? Together we will track down the intervention of chance in the hunt for the last of the elementary particles to be discovered.

Nicolas Curien Nicolas Curien

Nicolas Curien is a mathematician, specialist of probability theory. Former student of the Ecole Normale Supérieure (rue d'Ulm), he is since 2014 professor at the University Paris-Saclay and member of the Institut Universitaire de France since 2016. He mainly works on random graphs, random surfaces and their asymptotic geometric properties.

Conférence : Does the random regular?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 9h15 - 10h — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

When we think of "chance" or "random" we are more inclined to associate these notions with disorder than with order. Moreover, chance is often synonymous with unpredictability. However, random phenomena obey very strict mathematical rules: although a particular occurrence of a random phenomenon is inherently unpredictable, the statistical properties of a cohort of independent random phenomena are completely predictable. An example of such a property is the law of large numbers, which states that the probability of an event is equal to the asymptotic frequency of an (infinite) sequence of independent realizations. It is this "regularity" of chance that makes it possible to base statistics and extract information from real data.

Nicolas Gauvrit Nicolas Gauvrit
Research psychologist

Nicolas Gauvrit has a triple background in mathematics (Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon), psychology (Université Paris-Saint-Denis) and cognitive sciences (Ecole Polytechnique/Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Cognitives). He conducts research on human reasoning at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes in Paris. He is a member of the French Statistical Society and the French Association for Scientific Information. He is the author of more than a hundred articles and 12 scientific diffusion books. He has spoken in various media in recent years on the use of statistics, gender differences, reasoning and intelligence (France Culture, France Inter, Europe 1, Le Monde, Slate, Pour la Science, National Geographic...).

Conférence : Why do coincidences surprise us?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 15h15 - 16h — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Almost all of us experience surprising events from time to time... too surprising to be explainable, so we think, by chance. Such events may then give rise to conspiracy theories, rumours, even pseudo-scientific theories! Rather than dwell on the events themselves, why not talk about our astonishing astonishment? The effect of ignorance, probabilistic paradoxes, or neglect of certain important aspects of reality are among possible sources of our insight that, actually, nothing happens by accident.

Dédicace : Statistiques. Méfiez-vous !
Thursday 1 july 2021, 16h - 16h45
Dédicace : Causes toujours ! : Les pièges de la causalité
Friday 2 july 2021, 11h30 - 12h15
Dédicace : Comme par hasard ! Coïncidences et loi des séries
Saturday 3 july 2021, 15h15 - 16h
Dédicace : Vous avez dit hasard ? : Entre mathématiques et psychologie
Saturday 3 july 2021, 15h15 - 16h

Norbert Gautrin Norbert Gautrin
Emergency doctor

Norbert Gautrin was introduced to emergency care in 1969 in Professor Huguenard's intensive care unit when the SAMU du Val de Marne was created. He served as Secretary General of Médecins Sans Frontières for 9 years. He took part in several exploratory missions (in Kurdistan in 1980, in Iran in 1981, in Zaire in 1983 in relation with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and in Ethiopia in 1984). In 1986 Norbert Gautrin co-founded a company that was at the origin of thirteen EHPADs and a home care service. In 1993, he was a doctor in Dr Xavier Emmanuelli's team at the creation of the Samu Social de Paris. Since 1980, Norbert Gautrin has been working at SOS médecin Paris. He is also an administrator for the Samu Social International and for the philanthropic society which manages Ehpad, establishments for children with physical and mental disabilities, and shelters for women in great difficulty.

Table ronde : La médecine peut-elle s’affranchir du hasard ?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 15h15 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Olivier Caïra Olivier Caïra
Sociologist and essayist

Olivier Caïra is a lecturer in sociology at the IUT of Évry (University Paris-Saclay). He conducts his research at the Centre Pierre Naville (Évry) and at CRAL (EHESS Paris) on the experiences of fiction, interactive scriptwriting and leisure industries. His main publications are : Hollywood face à la censure (CNRS Éditions 2005), Jeux de rôle : les forges de la fiction (CNRS Éditions 2007), Définir la fiction (Éditions de l'EHESS 2011), Le Cerveau comme machine (Georg 2020) and Le Goof au cinéma (L'Harmattan 2020, with Réjane Hamus-Vallée). He is also an author of role-playing and board games.

Table ronde : Aimons-nous jouer avec le hasard ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 14h30 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié
Dédicace : Définir la fiction - Du roman au jeu d'échecs
Friday 2 july 2021, 16h - 16h45

Olivier Faron Olivier Faron
General Administrator of Cnam

A student at the ENS Saint-Cloud, Olivier Faron obtained an agrégation in history in 1982. He received his doctorate in 1996 and was authorized to direct research in 1999. Olivier Faron is a professor of contemporary history at Sorbonne-University. He has been the general administrator of the Cnam since September 2013. He is interested in the history of youth and contraception.

Conférence : Opening session
Thursday 1 july 2021, 9h15 - 10h — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Pascal Tassy Pascal Tassy
Researcher - Paleontologist

Pascal Tassy is emeritus professor at the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. As a paleontologist his interest was on mammal evolution and more precisely elephants and their relatives. His paleontological fieldwork took place in various places such as Northern Pyrénées (France), Pakistan, Kenya, and Bulgaria. He his among the paleontologists who in the 1970s raved on cladistic methodology and tried to renew phylogenetics. Among his latest books: L'Evolution au Muséum, Albert Gaudry (Editions Matériologiques/ Editions du Muséum), Une Histoire d'Evolution (Le Pommier), and with P. Darlu, C. d’Haese et R. Zaragüeta i Bagils, La Reconstruction Phylogénétique. Concepts et Méthodes (Nouvelle Edition Revue et Augmentée) (Editions Matériologiques).

Conférence : Is chance hidden in the phylogenetic tree?
Friday 2 july 2021, 13h45 - 14h30 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

The phylogenetic tree is a picture as old as the pioneering book Philosophie Zoologique by Lamarck (1809). Fifty years later, Darwin’s Origin of Species includes the first modern tree demonstrating descent with modification .Yet, the criteria on which the reconstruction of the history of evolution is based, have always been discussed, transformed, questioned, and are still today. On the side of mechanisms responsible of biological evolution, and consequently of the relationships depicted by the phylogenetic tree, chance is a subtle and embarrassing concept. The role of chance in phylogenetics is discussed from a structural viewpoint, that is, in trying to separate the pattern of relationships from the evolutionary processes. As counter-intuitive as it can be, the power of attraction of stories (and the phylogeny is one) does not help in the discussion.

Dédicace : Cavanna, paléontologue
Friday 2 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15
Dédicace : L’évolution au Muséum, Albert Gaudry
Friday 2 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15
Dédicace : Une histoire d'évolution
Friday 2 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15

Pascal Wagner-Egger Pascal Wagner-Egger
Lecturer in social psychology

Pascal Wagner-Egger is Lecturer in social psychology and statistics at the Department of Psychology of the University of Fribourg (Switzerland) and co-director of the Unit of Psycholinguistics and Applied Social Psychology. His research focuses on beliefs (conspiracy theories, paranormal beliefs, racism and seism, etc.) and everyday reasoning (social representations, logical reasoning, etc.).

Conférence : Will conspiracy abolish Chance?
Friday 2 july 2021, 13h45 - 14h30 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

We often hear and read the expressions "As if by chance! "or "Coincidence? I don't think so" in the mouths or on the screens of people who subscribe to conspiracy theories. Is it a misrepresentation of chance, of coincidences, of a cognitive bias that makes us perceive human intentions instead of randomness, of a motivation to deny chance or to see structures in the visual "noise"? This is the question we will try to answer with the help of scientific research data on this topic.

Dédicace : Psychology of belief to conspiracy theories
Friday 2 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15

Pascal Yiou Pascal Yiou
Climatology Researcher

Pascal Yiou holds a PhD in applied mathematics and is a research director at the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement. His current research focuses on the modelling of extreme events, chaotic systems and statistics. In 2014, he was awarded the ERC (European Research Council) prize for his work on the statistical properties of chaotic climate systems.

Table ronde : Le hasard gouverne-t-il le temps qu'il fait ?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 16h — Amphi Jean-Fourastié
Dédicace : Le temps s’est-il détraqué ?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15

Patrice Besnard Patrice Besnard
General Manager France Horlogerie

Since 1993, Patrice Besnard is the General Delegate for the French Horological Federation. He is also the President of the French Committee of horological standardization and the President of the French delegation of the horological international Committee of standardization ISO TC/114. He is an Expert with the customs arbitration Committee (France). Patrice Besnard is the General Delegate of the European Union Horological Federation “EuroTempus” and the Secretary of the European delegation of the Permanent European Horological Committee. Patrice is also Delegate manager of France Creative Industries.

Table ronde : La mesure du temps supporte-t-elle le hasard ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 16h45 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Patrick Clervoy Patrick Clervoy
Psychiatrist doctor

Patrick Clervoy is a psychiatrist and associate professor at Val-de-Grâce. He has carried out several missions in different theaters of operation. He is the author of books on psychological trauma and the unconscious mechanisms of collective violence. He has published a book by Odile Jacob that explores the phenomena of healing - Les pouvoirs de l'esprit sur le corps - and another - Vérité ou mensonge - on the psychological mechanisms that organize the hold of lies on a social group.

Conférence : Is chance a good or a bad idea?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Ask the question "Do you believe in chance? "and you will get categorical answers, negative or positive. The idea of chance leaves no one indifferent. It organizes our representation of the world. It disturbs some and reassures others. It can be a source of error and determine aberrant behavior, as in superstition. But we can detach the idea of chance from the principle of unhappiness. The idea of chance can give our lives a harmonious meaning and inspire calming behaviors. Through several examples taken from everyday life we show that we can come to terms with the idea of chance and, even better, make an alliance with it and rejoice in it.

Dédicace : Les pouvoirs de l'esprit sur le corps
Saturday 3 july 2021, 18h15 - 19h
Dédicace : Vérité ou mensonge
Saturday 3 july 2021, 18h15 - 19h

Patrick Touron Patrick Touron
Commander of the National Gendarmerie's Judicial Division

Patrick Touron is General of the Gendarmerie, Commander of the Judicial Pole of the National Gendarmerie (PJGN) and former Director of the Criminal Research Institute of the National Gendarmerie (IRCGN) until 2018. Graduate of the Lausanne School of Criminal Sciences (ESC) and former student of the Collège Interarmées de Défense (CID) promotion 2004. Expert in criminal investigations, specialising in the field of explosives and victim identification during mass disasters. In this capacity, he has been practicing forensic expertise in sensitive cases since the 1990s and has written numerous scientific articles in the field of forensic science. He has alternated positions within the Scientific Gendarmerie with operational command posts in the field, the most recent of which was that of Commander of the Bas-Rhin Departmental Gendarmerie until 2012. Patrick Touron is a former auditor at the Institut des Hautes Etudes pour la Science et la Technologie (IHEST promotion "Leonardo da Vinci" 2012-2013).

Table ronde : Comment définir le hasard en termes juridiques ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 10h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Paul Jacquet Paul Jacquet

Paul Jacquet is a director/videographer and photographer based in the heart of the Pyrenees. He has always been attached to the image and everything that revolves around it. After getting his first camcorder at the age of 12, he never stopped capturing the moment. Today, he is known under the name of Pajaprod and makes advertising, promotional, wedding and event films. Also a professional drone pilot, he travels in France and abroad depending on the project, and makes a point of creating engaging and authentic content to help his clients achieve each of their goals.

Penny Starfield Penny Starfield
Professor of American studies and film studies

Penny Starfield is professor of American studies and film studies in the English Department of Université Caen Normandie and a member of the ERIBIA laboratory. Her research concerns film history and esthetics, notably the American New Wave film and the representation of minorities, the subject of a current monograph. She edited Masque et lumière (2006) and Femmes et pouvoir (2008) for the CinémAction series. Her articles on chance and film include « Du hasard au cinéma », Raison présente, n° 198, 2016.

Conférence : What is the chance for choice ? The comedy or tragedy of chance in film
Saturday 3 july 2021, 11h30 - 12h15 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

This paper analyses the interactions between choice and chance. What place does chance leave for choice? Is there a difference in the chance of comedy to that of tragedy, between Charlie Chaplin’s The Kid (1921) and the South African film Tsotsi (directed by Gavin Hood, 2005), two films that draw their inspiration from the same impetus: the fortuitous discovery of a baby in a car? Comedy rarely puts up barriers to the inhabitual and Chaplin’s good-hearted tramp easily accommodates the abandoned infant. Choice gives way to comedy. In contrast, the baby in the car forces the eponymous petty gangster in Tsotsi to confront his own unfinished childhood and a series of existential choices. In a different vein, John Ford’s western Stagecoach (1939) presents the chance birth of a baby girl, Coyote, in the desert between Arizona and New Mexico, amidst an assortment of passengers thrown together at random. With his usual talent, Ford redistributes their choices, fates and destinies.

Philippe Badaroux Philippe Badaroux
Co-founder of BH Technologies

Philippe Badaroux engineer in electronics has been working for several international companies in France, USA, UK and Japan. In 1998 he co-founded BH Technologies, a company dedicated to the controlling of urban lighting in France, aiming at important energy savings. BH Technologies has designed a very accurate astronomical algorithm that switches lights at very last possible moment each evening. Philippe Badaroux is a member of France-Horlogerie and works on the creation of the “Foundation for Time” that is on the verge of birth this year. He also chairs the “Cluster lumière” an organization that pushes for better matching between innovation and usage. As Light, Time is a value that everyone feels, but very few understand….

Table ronde : La mesure du temps supporte-t-elle le hasard ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 16h45 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Philippe Charlier Philippe Charlier
Medical examiner

Philippe Charlier is a doctor of medicine, a doctor of science and a doctor of letters. He is a university lecturer, authorized to direct research. Until the summer of 2013, Philippe Charlier was a member of the forensic medicine department of the Raymond Poincaré University Hospital in Garches. He was also a researcher at the Medical Ethics Laboratory of the University of Paris-Descartes. He led a multidisciplinary team working in the fields of forensic anthropology, retrospective diagnosis, paleopathology and pathography. He specialized in the study of ancient human remains or mummies, and has a reputation for making the dead talk and unlocking their secrets. Initiator and organizer of international pathography symposiums, his work has focused on the study of the remains of the children of Tutankhamun, Richard the Lionheart, Agnès Sorel, Foulque III Nerra d'Anjou, Diane de Poitiers, the relics of Louis IX scattered throughout France, authenticating them in passing in collaboration with other specialists, the false relics of Joan of Arc, the presumed head of Henry IV and in 2017 on the remains of Hitler. He has participated in several television programs on history and medicine, including Secrets d'histoire on France 2, Sous les jupons de l'Histoire on Chérie 25, Le Magazine de la santé and Enquête de Santé on France 5. He co-wrote and presented a documentary series, Enquête d'ailleurs, co-produced and broadcast by Arte in 2013 and 2015. Since October 2018, Philippe Charlier has been Director of the Research and Teaching Department at the Musée du quai Branly - Jacques-Chirac. He is a member of the Société de Géographie, the Société des Explorateurs Français, the Société des Africanistes, and the Société Française d'Histoire de la Médecine.

Conférence : Death, illness, tomorrow: does chance fight against the unknown?
Friday 2 july 2021, 10h - 10h45 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

In progress

Dédicace : Rituels
Friday 2 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30

Philippe Huneman Philippe Huneman

Philippe Huneman is a French philosopher, director of research at the Institut d'Histoire et de Philosophie des Sciences et des Techniques (CNRS/Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne), where he is in charge of the "Philosophy of Biology and Medicine" team. Originally trained in mathematics, he specialized in the philosophy of biology, in particular evolutionary biology, and ecology. He has published numerous articles on questions related to the concept of organism, natural selection, theoretical ecology or the modalities of scientific explanation, as well as conspiracy theories. Author of Métaphysique et biologie. Kant et la constitution du concept d'organisme (Kimé, 2008), and recently Pourquoi? Une question pour découvrir le monde (Flammarion/Autrement 2020), which includes a theory of contingency and necessity, he co-edited Les Mondes Darwiniens (with Thomas Heams, Guillaume Lecointre, Marc Silberstein; Matériologiques, 2011), Challenging the Modern Synthesis (Oxford University Press, 2017, with Denis Walsh), and Temps de la nature, nature du temps (CNRS ed, with Christophe Bouton). His next books are Philosophical Sketches of Death in the Life Sciences: The Biology of Mortality (Palgrave, 2021); La société du profilage (Payot, 2022).

Conférence : Can chance be an explanation?
Friday 2 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

The notion of chance is distinct from that of intention as well as from that of causality: a chance can be a fact that has a determined cause but does not fit in with any intention or plan ("I met him by chance"); it can also mean a stochastic phenomenon that has no known or existing cause (the fact that such and such a radioactive atom decays at such and such a moment); or whose probability is extremely low ("the chance of birth"). In all these senses, chance seems incapable of constituting an acceptable explanation of a phenomenon. But only an implicit presupposition concerning the relation of high probabilities to explanation, and explanations of opposite events, would justify such mistrust. After having elucidated and criticized it, I will consider in evolutionary biology and ecology the theories that effectively make a certain randomness the explanation of facts related to genetic or specific diversity, and that are called neutralist: the neutralist theory of Kimura in evolution, the neutralist theory of Hubbell in community ecology. Finally, I will indicate how the theories whose explanatory principle is rather necessity (in the form of natural selection) or rather chance relate to different time scales in eco-evolutionary processes.

Dédicace : Pourquoi ? - Une question pour découvrir le monde
Friday 2 july 2021, 11h30 - 12h15

Purificación López-García Purificación López-García

Purificación López-García is a Research Director working for the French CNRS and the leader of the “Microbial diversity, ecology and evolution” research group at the Ecology Systematics Evolution unit (CNRS & University Paris-Sud/Paris-Saclay). She obtained her PhD in Sciences (Biology) from the Autonomous University of Madrid (Spain) in 1992, working on the genome structure of halophilic archaea. She spent several years as postdoc (Marie Curie fellow and others) and associated professor in various institutions (Université Paris-Sud, France; Universidad Miguel Hernandez and Universidad de Alicante, Spain; Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France), before she entered the CNRS as a researcher in 2002. Her scientific career has been marked by a profound interest on the extent and limits of life and on how evolution has led to the diversification of major organismal lines. Her research group combines complementary approaches, from the exploration of extant prokaryotic (archaea, bacteria) and eukaryotic diversity in diverse environments, including extreme and strongly mineralized settings, to phylogenomics and metagenomics, with the aim of elucidating the order of emergence of the different microbial groups and testing hypotheses on early biological evolution.

Raphaël Chevrier Raphaël Chevrier
Bid Management & Innovation

Former columnist for the scientific press, notably for the astronomy magazine Ciel & Espace, Raphaël Chevrier presented a doctoral thesis in physics at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in 2013. Since 2016, he has been working for Arianespace, the European space launch services operator, first as Executive Assistant to the CEO Stéphane Israël, then in the Business Development Division in charge of innovation matters and commercial offer management. Passionate about popular science, in 2018, he published his first book "Ca alors ! Histoire de ces découvertes que l’on n’attendait pas" with la Librairie Vuibert publishing house.

Conférence : Does a space launch leave room for chance?
Friday 2 july 2021, 9h15 - 10h — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

Anyone who has ever followed a space launch, from the French Guiana Space Center or behind a screen, will have noticed the concentration that drives the teams during the very last operations of the final countdown and during the launch sequence… before joy settles on the faces when the satellite is injected into orbit. Concentration, because each launch requires the mastery of an infinite number of parameters treated with extreme rigor and thoroughness. Joy, because despite the fact that nothing is left to chance, some hazards – for example weather conditions – make each space mission a unique adventure. One thing is certain: with 40 years of experience, Arianespace has constantly reduced, launch after launch, the role of chance in space missions.

Dédicace : What does science say?
Friday 2 july 2021, 10h - 10h45

Raphaël Lachièze-Rey Raphaël Lachièze-Rey

Raphaël Lachièze-Rey is a researcher in mathematics at the Université de Paris, former student of the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan. He is specialised in probability theory, and organises the MAP5 laboratory probability seminar.

Conférence : How much certainty is there in randomness?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

How can an accumulation of completely random and unpredictable events generate certitudes? Track and quantify certainty in randomness is at the core of the mathematical theory of probability and statistics, with surprising benefits: journals can announce with certainty the result of an election with only 1% of expressed ballots, and seismologists can predict with precision the number of earthquakes occuring in 2021, whereas earthquake forecasting remains a great mystery of sismology. These certitudes become even more surprising when they undergo a threshold effect, in particular in statistical physics: two disordered random systems, very close in their parameters, can behave in totally different ways, yet in a completely predictable fashion.

Remi Camus Remi Camus

Rémi Camus is not a sportsman like the others. Overnight, when he was only 26 years old, Remi left his job in a Michelin star restaurant. His head is elsewhere and his body takes him to new adventures when he decides to cross Australia by foot (5,400 km), then to go down the Mekong by hydrospeed swim (4,400 km) or to swim around France (2,650 km). Today he continues to explore the world with his own means, while sensitizing people on the state of the waters on the planet.

Conférence : Is chance unavoidable for the explorer?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 9h15 - 10h — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

In progress

Roger Mansuy Roger Mansuy

After a thesis in probability, Roger Mansuy chose to teach in scientific preparatory classes. In addition to his teaching activity at the Lycées Louis-le-Grand and Saint-Louis, he is known for his action in the diffusion of mathematical culture; he has already published a dozen academic works and has written monthly columns in the magazine La Recherche.

Conférence : What can we expect from random?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

It is customary to place the origin of the mathematical theory of probability with the resolution of a practical problem: two players have their game interrupted before fate has determined a winner; how to determine a fair distribution of bets knowing the score at the interruption? In other words, how much of the total bet can each player expect to get? Through this example, the concept of mathematical expectation appears. It is now found in all the modelizations and calculations related to random: from our hopes in the drawing of a lottery to our life expectancy and the estimation of prices in financial contracts. Let's look at the historical development of this concept and its relevance in translating our intuitive perception of hope.

Roger Penrose Roger Penrose
Physicist and mathematician

Sir Roger Penrose is an English mathematical physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science. He is Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the University of Oxford and an emeritus fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. Penrose has made contributions to the mathematical physics of general relativity and cosmology. He has received several prizes and awards, including the 1988 Wolf Prize for physics, which he shared with Stephen Hawking for the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems.

Roland Lehoucq Roland Lehoucq

Roland Lehoucq is an astrophysicist at the Astrophysics Department of the CEA in Saclay. He teaches at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques and at the master ASE2 (Social Approach to Energy and the Environment) of the University Paris Diderot. He has published numerous works including "La science fait son cinéma" and "Faire des sciences avec Star Wars". Since 2012, he has been president of Utopiales, the international science fiction festival in Nantes. The asteroid (31387) Lehoucq is named after him as a tribute to his involvement in the dissemination and sharing of knowledge.

Conférence : Does random lodge itself in the heart of the stars?
Friday 2 july 2021, 15h15 - 16h — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Many hypotheses were put forward to understand the nature and origin of the prodigious luminosity of the Sun. At the beginning of the 20th century, physicists understood that the fusion of light elements into heavier ones could provide the energy that allows our star to shine for a long time: the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei into one helium nucleus can provide the Sun with enough energy to shine for billions of years. However, it remained to be understood how two nuclei, carrying a positive electric charge, can come close enough to fuse despite their electrostatic repulsion. In this lecture, we will see that the physical process that allows stars to shine for such a long time is based on randomness and that it manifests itself in many other situations.

Dédicace : Pourquoi le Soleil brille
Friday 2 july 2021, 16h - 16h45

Romain Ligneul Romain Ligneul
Researcher in neuroscience

Former student of the École Normale Supérieure, Romain Ligneul is a researcher in neuroscience in Lisbon (Center for the Unknown, Fondation Champalimaud). After a thesis at the Marc Jeannerod Institute (Lyon, CNRS) during which he worked on the perception of probabilities in pathological gamblers, he studied the neurocognitive mechanisms involved in exploratory behaviors and in the capacity of humans to evaluate the control they have over their environment. This work has progressively led him to question the formalization of the concepts of causality and chance in cognitive sciences.

Conférence : Should we lose control in order to regain it?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 15h15 - 16h — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Executive control is an evolutionary treasure that allows humans to succeed in incredibly complex cognitive tasks. Because they oppose both the stochasticity of our brain and the stochasticity of our environment, so-called controlled behaviors are frequently associated with better "performance" as measured in the laboratory. However, this association between executive control and performance is far from universal and deserves to be questioned in many ways. In this talk, I will show in particular why our executive control is sometimes undesirable and why our ability to produce randomness is often indispensable. In doing so, I will try to show how information theory can articulate the concepts of control, randomness and agentivity in a coherent and sometimes unexpected way.

Sandrine Marcot Sandrine Marcot
Deputy President

Sandrine Marcot is a graduate of the Executive MBA of Paris-Dauphine and the University of Quebec in Montreal (UQAM). She also holds a Master's degree in Management of Associative Organizations and a Master's degree in Human Resources. After a rich career at the head of SMEs, Sandrine joined the world of associative and professional organizations 14 years ago. Since 2014, she has been the head of the Union de la bijouterie-horlogerie, a professional organization representing jeweler-horlogger retailers with French and European political and economic actors. Today, she and her team support nearly 600 companies representing 2100 stores throughout the country, and €1.3 billion in sales. Sandrine's mission is also to analyze the environmental and economic changes impacting the jewelry industry. She assists retailers in the transformation of their business, taking into account changes in consumption patterns and their consequences on the activity of the points of sale but also on the evolution of the sector's professions. Thus, in partnership with major players in the sector, it has initiated a major digital transformation plan for all French stores and is working alongside France Horlogerie to create a digital platform and a LAB where watch manufacturers, retailers and tech companies can design new projects together.

Table ronde : La mesure du temps supporte-t-elle le hasard ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 16h45 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Sean Raymond Sean Raymond

Sean Raymond is an American astrophysicist. He studies the formation and evolution of planetary systems. In his research he asks questions like: Where did Earth’s water come from? Which extra-solar planetary systems are the best for life? Can moons have their own moons? Why does our Solar System appear to be different than planetary systems around other stars? As a science fiction-loving astronomer, he enjoys blending imagination with science. On his blog - - he sometimes create his own planetary systems. Sometimes he evaluate the scientific validity of well-known settings from movies or books (such as Pandora, Arrakis, and more). And sometimes he tries to figure out what it would feel like on a different planet, for example by understanding the day-night cycles in multi-star systems or by getting a feel for the climates of exotic worlds. He also describes the ways that planets are destroyed, based on his own research and sometimes break out Dr Seuss-style astronomy poems. He also just published a book of astronomy poems.

Conférence : Did our planet form by chance?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 10h45 - 11h30 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Understanding how our Earth formed is a grand challenge of planetary science, and at the heart of the search for other life-bearing planets in the Galaxy. We have images of planet-forming disks around young stars, and have discovered thousands of exoplanets orbiting other, older stars. A variety of physical processes is thought to be responsible for the growth of micrometer-sized dust grains to planets tens of thousands of kilometers in size. Some processes are well-behaved and predictable. Yet others are stochastic in nature such that a small change may result in a drastically different outcome. Computer simulations can address the branching of outcomes, and the robustness of the formation of our planet and Solar System. The question then becomes, what characteristics make Earth truly 'special'?

Sebastian Dieguez Sebastian Dieguez

Sebastian Dieguez is a researcher in neuroscience and cognitive psychology at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. His work focuses on belief formation, with a particular emphasis on contemporary conspiracy. He is also interested in the links between psychology and literature, the spread of pseudo-science, and the nature of self-awareness. In addition to his academic activities, he writes regularly in the magazine Cerveau & Psycho and the satirical journal Vigousse. His latest book is Total Bullshit! Au coeur de la post-vérité (PUF, 2018).

Conférence : Why me?
Friday 2 july 2021, 16h - 16h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

When chance, destiny, fate or misfortune strike us cruelly, the question "why me? "emerges quite naturally. But the truth is that this question could be asked at any time. Why am I me, here, now, and not someone else? And why are we all "me," when we might as well have been anyone, or even anything? Why am I the one writing these lines, and not you? And why am I writing these particular lines, and not others? Are we, at any moment, the target of mysterious games of chance? Unless, of course, all these questions are wrongly asked, and result only from a pernicious illusion of the mind. This presentation attempts to update the presuppositions of the question "why me?", by mobilizing recent research on the nature of the "true self" in neuroscience and cognitive psychology.

Dédicace : Total bullshit !
Friday 2 july 2021, 16h45 - 17h30

Sébastien Teot Sébastien Teot

With an MBA from IFG and Georgetown, Sébastien Téot has more than 20 years of experience in industry, distribution and commerce, in subsidiary and operational management positions. His strong experience in the service industry in management positions at Amazon EU and SCPTime allows him to approach the challenges of time in the digital world with hindsight and in a global manner.

Table ronde : La mesure du temps supporte-t-elle le hasard ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 16h45 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Sébastien Wit Sébastien Wit

Sébastien Wit is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Picardie Jules Verne, in charge of monitoring the activities of the ANR ALEA CRP. Agrégé de lettres modernes and doctor in comparative literature, he has published: Romans du hasard : Italo Calvino, Julio Cortázar, Philip K. Dick, Marc Saporta (PU Rennes, 2019). He is a member of the CERCLL (EA 4283), and works in particular on forms of non-linear narration in the twentieth century, both in literature and in ludic cultures.

Table ronde : Aimons-nous jouer avec le hasard ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 14h30 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Sidney Delgado Sidney Delgado

Biologist at Sorbonne University, Sidney Delgado works at ISYEB (Institute for Systematics, Evolution, Biodiversity) which depends on the National Museum of Natural History, Sorbonne University and CNRS. He is a specialist in evolutionary genetics, he studies the evolution of mineralization genes, expressed in bones, teeth and scales in vertebrates.

Conférence : Is the randomness of mutations the only engine of evolution?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 13h45 - 14h30 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

In 1859, in his book "On the Origin of Species", Charles Darwin explains that evolution is based on random variations which are transmitted in a hereditary manner and are then sorted by natural selection according to the environment. However, he could not explain the origin of these "variations". The answer to this question came at the beginning of the 20th century by the advent of genetics and the discovery of mutations. In the middle of the 20th century we finally understood the nature of these mutations. In evolution, is chance the sole result of random mutations in DNA? Today, we discover that the environment interacts with the expression of genes: there is inheritance without genes, it’s epigenetics. We also discover that gene expression is a random phenomenon in which a gene has a certain probability of being expressed or not. The stabilization of the system would come from external signals and from a phenomenon that Jean-Jacques Kupiec called cellular Darwinism (a natural selection at the level of the cell). So, what happens at the organism level also happens at the cell level.

Dédicace : Tolkien et les sciences
Saturday 3 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15

Stuart Vyse Stuart Vyse
Behavioral Scientist and Writer

Stuart Vyse is a behavioral scientist, teacher, and writer. He is a contributing editor for Skeptical Inquirer magazine, for which he writes the “Behavior & Belief” column. The first edition of his book Believing in Magic: The Psychology of Superstition (Oxford) won the William James Book Award of the American Psychological Association and was translated into Japanese, German, and Romanian. An updated edition was published in 2014. His book Going Broke: Why Americans (Still) Can’t Hold On To Their Money (Oxford) is an analysis of the current epidemic of personal debt in the United States. The first edition was translated into Chinese, and the second edition was released in September of 2018 in both paperback and audiobook formats. His book Superstition: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford) was published in 2020. As an expert on superstition and irrational behavior, Vyse has been quoted in many news outlets, including the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, and have appeared on CBS Sunday Morning, CNN International, the PBS NewsHour, and NPR’s Science Friday. He holds a PhD in psychology and BA and MA degrees in English Literature and is a Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science and the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry.

Conférence : Can Humans Tolerate a Random World?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

It has been said that, as nature abhors a vacuum, human nature abhors uncertainty and absence of meaning. Although we have remarkable powers of perception, we often see order where there is none and think things happen for reasons that cannot be supported by evidence. We invent superstitions and other irrational notions to erase the randomness of the world. People vary in their need for order, control, and tolerance of ambiguity. When asked to simulate the random behavior of a coin flip, humans often fail and are only able to duplicate randomness after extensive training. Yet tolerance of ambiguity is an essential feature of scientific thinking and is associated with greater well-being in stressful situations. Given that the world we face often appears arbitrary and unpredictable, can we learn to live with randomness?

Dédicace : Superstition: A Very Short Introduction
Thursday 1 july 2021, 18h15 - 19h
Dédicace : Believing in Magic: The Psychology of Superstition
Friday 2 july 2021, 12h15 - 13h

Sylvestre Huet Sylvestre Huet

Sylvestre Huet has been a journalist specializing in science since 1986. He has worked for many newspapers including Libération and Le Monde. Today independent, he runs the blog {Sciences²} for ( Diderot-Curien prize (2012), Union Rationaliste prize (2015), Académie d'agriculture 2019 prize for scientific information for the general public). Author of several books including : Quel climat pour demain (2000 Calmann-Lévy), L'imposteur, c'est lui : réponse à Claude Allègre, Stock, 2010; Changement climatique : les savoirs et les possibles (with Hervé Le Treut, Olivier Godard and Jérôme Chapellaz), La ville brûle, 2010; Les dessous de la cacophonie climatique, La ville brûle, 2015; Le Climat en 100 questions (with Gilles Ramstein, Tallandier, 2020).

Table ronde : Le hasard gouverne-t-il le temps qu'il fait ?
Thursday 1 july 2021, 16h — Amphi Jean-Fourastié
Dédicace : Le climat en 100 questions
Thursday 1 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15

Sylvie Zucca Sylvie Zucca
Psychiatrist doctor

Sylvie Quesemand Zucca, a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, works in private practice with adolescents and young adults and, on a weekly basis, in a consultation with migrants who have recently arrived on French soil. Sylvie worked for 10 years with Dr. Xavier Emmanuelli on issues of precariousness and psychiatry in the framework of the first mobile unit "psychiatry precariousness". Sylvie Quesemand Zucca is currently leading a reflection on the links between digital image flows and symptoms in adolescence. In the adult world, she is more generally interested in the psychopathology of contemporary events.

Table ronde : La médecine peut-elle s’affranchir du hasard ?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 15h15 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Thierry Harvey Thierry Harvey

Thierry Harvey is an obstetrician gynecologist. He has been head of maternity ward for the Diaconesses hospital of Paris for almost 25 years. He currently chairs Solipam (Solidarité Paris maman), an association and network dealing with pregnant women in a highly precarious situation in Paris region. Thierry is particularly involved into defense of women, right to voluntary abortion and medical help with conception. Well-being and human respect are his main concerns.

Table ronde : La médecine peut-elle s’affranchir du hasard ?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 15h15 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Thomas Boraud Thomas Boraud

Thomas Boraud MD, PhD has a well-recognized expertise in multiple electrode recording in the context of action selection and decision making and their learning processes in the cortex-basal ganglia loop. His studies rely on in vivo electrophysiological recordings in behaving animals, both rodents and non-human primates, associated with advanced computational analysis tools - driven by theoretical models. After a Marie Curie Fellowship at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, he secured a tenured position (Charge de Recherche) in the CNRS in 2001. Since then, Thomas Boraud published 80+ papers in peer reviewed journals. During this period, he has supervised the work of 11 post-doctoral fellows and 6 PhD students plus 20+ undergraduate students. Thomas Boraud secured a Directeur de Recherche CNRS position in 2008. He set up his own research team in 2011, along with 3 other senior researchers, 5 post-doctoral fellows, 3 PhD students and 1 technician. This team grow up in 2016 with the inclusion of 3 clinicians working on pathophysiology of executive functions. Beside his scientific duty, Thomas Boraud is Scientific Editor at PLoS one and Frontier in Neurosciences. He was president of the Parkinson's committee of Fondation de France (2009-2012) and has been elected president of the International basal Ganglia Society for 2017-2019.The work of Thomas Boraud has been recognized by prizes from the Fondation pour la Recherche Medicale en 2010 (Prix Innovation) and by the CNRS (Prime d'Excellence Scientifique, 2010-2013).

Conférence : Does our brain flip a coin?
Friday 2 july 2021, 12h15 - 13h — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

What if our ability to make decisions was more a matter of chance than a rational process? It has long been recognized that in humans, decision-making is the result of a cognitive and psychological process: the mind decides, the body obeys. However, the pattern is reversed: the decision-making mechanism is produced by brain matter. It is a random phenomenon that results from competitive processes within a network whose architecture has changed little since the first vertebrates. The extraordinary development of the cortex, which made possible the development of great abstraction capacities, has not changed the initial structure of the decision network: the process retains its random nature, which limits the ability of homo sapiens to reason rationally. As a result, when an individual weighs the pros and cons, he does nothing more or less than rely on random virtual dice. Learning therefore consists in casting these dice in its favor ... But what, according to purely economic criteria, is only a limited rationality, is perhaps the price to pay to keep the great capacity of adaptation, main characteristic of the human species

Dédicace : Matière à décision
Friday 2 july 2021, 13h - 13h45

Thomas Heams Thomas Heams
Genomics and Biotechnology Researcher

Thomas Heams is an assistant professor in AgroParisTech and INRAE. After a PhD about stochastic gene expression, he has worked on prebiotic issues in an Evolutionary Biochmistry laboratory. His current research and teachings include genetics, history of science, and critical epistemology of biotechnology. He is a board member of the publishing house Les Editions Matériologiques. He is the author of « Infravies, le vivant sans frontières » (Seuil, 2019), in which he advocates for a renewed framework to go beyond the traditional divide between living an non-living things.

Conférence : What is the role of chance in the origins of life?
Friday 2 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

Searching for the origins of the life is not only manifesting curiosity for an elusive historical event, but rather one of the ways to better understand what biological life is. However, considering that life is an historical process, there is a paradox in wanting to grasp it at its very dawn, precisely when it was without history. This can be solved it by considering a deeper temporal dynamic, where the very notion of the appearance of life can be replaced by a more gradual vision, in which chance has never ceased to play a role, since evolution from mineral forms to those of living things. It is therefore the transformations of the role of chance that can enlighten us here, and be rich in teaching for research that aims to recreate life in the laboratory or to look for it elsewhere in the universe. Rather than a docile and determined phenomenon, the random dynamics remind us that the originality of biological life resides in its necessary and permanent inventiveness.

Dédicace : Infravies - Le vivant sans frontières
Friday 2 july 2021, 18h15 - 19h

Thomas Jontza Thomas Jontza

II did my training in psychiatry and psychotherapy with special interest in psychoanalysis in the PLK Weissenau, the university hospital of the Universitaet Ulm in Germany. I was lucky to establish myself in the profession during a time of new therapeutic possibilities, a situation for which I was and remain very grateful to my teachers and colleagues. I also work today in couple therapy, having been trained by C. Gammer in family therapy. Under the guidance of Prof. Hole, I have taught hypnosis to students (medical doctors) of psychotherapy in Germany, later in Zurich, at the Psychiatric University Hospital Burghoelzli. For some years, I have been working in Paris as a practitioner in my private office; in addictologyI am attached to the HEGP/AP-HP. When treating my psychiatric and psychotherapeutic patients, I also include behavioural therapy (e.g. DBT, Scheme Therapy).

Table ronde : La médecine peut-elle s’affranchir du hasard ?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 15h15 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Tiphaine Lours Tiphaine Lours
Master in History of Medicine

Tiphaine Lours is currently a master’s degree student at the School of Research of Sciences Po Paris. After completing a double degree between Sorbonne University and Sciences Po Paris in History and Social Sciences, and spending a year abroad in the Archeology Department of Univeristy College Cork in Ireland, she is now writing a thesis research at the crossroads of the history of medicine and the history of experimental sciences. With the financial support of the Comité pour l’Histoire de l’INSERM, it aims to explore the origins of surgical practices related to organ and tissue transplants during the 19th century in France. She is also starting an entrepreneurial project, with the creation of her knitting patterns’ brand available online.

Ugo Bellagamba Ugo Bellagamba
Author and teacher-researcher

Ugo Bellagamba is a writer and teacher-researcher in the history of law and political ideas, based at Université Côte d'Azur. He works mainly on cultural representations of law and justice in utopias and science fiction. As an author, he has published several uchronies, including Tancrède, a novel revisiting the First Crusade, for which he received several awards. He is also the organizer of the next national science fiction convention in Valbonne.

Table ronde : Comment définir le hasard en termes juridiques ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 10h45 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Valentin Baillard Valentin Baillard
PhD student in probability

During his studies at École Centrale Paris (now called CentraleSupélec), Valentin pursued a 3-year research project in plasma physics applied to future low-carbon technologies and joined the LIGO collaboration for 6 months. Now a graduate, he is moving towards more abstract research in fundamental mathematics and is currently in his first year of a PhD in Probability at the University of Paris-Sud and the CEA of Paris-Saclay. His subject is the study of the spectral properties of a certain type of random matrices, which are of interest both to mathematicians and theoretical physicists, but also ultimately to the machine learning or telecommunications industry. Passionate about science, in 2018 he coordinated the organization of a large-scale student scientific symposium (the first edition of the CentraleSupélec Scientific Symposium), and during his doctorate he leads scientific workshops for primary and secondary school students at the Maison d'Initiation et de Sensibilisation aux Sciences (MISS) in Paris-Saclay. Today his interest lies in the democratizing critical thinking and a philosophical approach to our relationship to knowledge.

Table ronde : Peut-on créer sans hasard ?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 11h30 — Amphi Abbé-Grégoire

Valentin Lam Valentin Lam

Valentin Lam is a professional photographer and videographer specializing in adventure. Primarily passionate about photography for almost 10 years, he has focused on original portraits, playing with environments, textures and lights to create unique and modern shots. At the same time, his taste for travel and adventure has blended perfectly with that of video and that's why he makes films and clips in this universe.

Vera Mihailovich-Dickman Vera Mihailovich-Dickman
Associate Professor in Interculturality

Vera Mihailovich-Dickman is an Associate Professor teaching English and Interculturality at Telecom Paris, a science and engineering graduate school, member of l’Institut Mines-Telecom and l’Institut Polytechnique de Paris. She is currently in charge of Internationalisation and Interculturality at the Université Paris-Saclay and is a member of the research lab SLAM - Synergies Languages Arts Music. She was awarded a doctorate for her thesis on the work of the dual artist Henri Michaux whose work she discovered by chance during her final year undergraduate, then graduate studies in France. She taught French in South Africa where she had performed with William Kentridge in « Ubu Rex » during her student years. In 1981, like Kentridge who came to study theatre, she returned to France to meet Henri Michaux in Paris, where he died in 1984. In 1999 she organised a centenary retrospective of his art works at the Whitechapel Gallery in London. She is passionate about contemporary art, experimental theatre , writing and interculturality.

Conférence : How far can the artist trust randomness?
Friday 2 july 2021, 14h30 - 15h15 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

To what extent do the creative processes of the two proteiform artists, Henri Michaux and William Kentridge, rely on chance ? The Johannesburg-born Kentridge came to Paris in his twenties to study mime and theatre at the Ecole Jacques Lecoq. He discovered then that acting was not to be his path. Possessed by a revolutionary utopian vision that he felt sure was necessary to counter the unjust and absurd political reality of his country, he was seduced by a Dadaist-type cacophony where poetry, performance, art and industry, could be randomly combined into a new coherent order. Henri Michaux, having left Belgium at 20 to sail across the world, found himself a published poet in Paris by the age of 24. Refusing in 1965 « Le Prix National des Lettres », his quest for inner freedom would lead him to blindly follow a pencil line on a blank page to new adventures. He would create by allowing images to appear or disappear or simply to reflect gesture or vibration. He could finally question representation. Michaux has been exhibited in over 300 galleries around the world, and still in Paris in 2020. Kentridge would advance when he could erase, embrace error and risk. He is considered one of the greatest contemporary creators ever, rewarded by the prestigious Praemium Imperial Prize in Japan in 2019 and, in France, a retrospective at the LAM in 2020.

Vincent Bontems Vincent Bontems
Philosopher of science

Vincent Bontems is a philosopher of science and technology, researcher at Larsim (CEA) and associate researcher at CGS (Mines ParisTech). A specialist in Gaston Bachelard and Gilbert Simondon, his work focuses on epistemology, the philosophy of technology, the sociology of science, and innovation. He directs the collection "L'Âne d'or" at Belles Lettres. He teaches epistemology and ethics at ENSTA, INSTN and Institut Pasteur. Author with Roland Lehoucq of Les idées noires de la physique in 2016, he also directs the seminar "Conception, creation, innovation and invention" at the Ecole des Mines.

Table ronde : Aimons-nous jouer avec le hasard ?
Friday 2 july 2021, 14h30 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Xavier Emmanuelli Xavier Emmanuelli
Emergency doctor

Xavier Emmanuelli graduated as a doctor of merchant medicine and joined the maritime courier. Then he became a general practitioner at the Coal Basin of the Freyming-Merlebach Mines. At the same time, he became part of the founding team of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), with a desire to create an international emergency relief effort. In parallel, from 1972 to 1975, he was the assistant to Professor Pierre Huguenard for the creation and development of SAMU 94, one of the first Emergency Medical Aid Services. As an anesthesiologist and reanimator. From 1992 to 1995 Xavier Emmanuelli was a hospital practitioner at the Care and Accommodation Center at the Nanterre hospital. He described a new clinical approach to social exclusion observed during consultations with the homeless. He then imagined a social SAMU like the medical SAMU in order to take charge of people in situations of exclusion. From 1995 to 1997, he was appointed Secretary of State for Emergency Humanitarian Action by President Jacques Chirac. In 1998, he also founded the Samusocial International, in order to address the high levels of exclusion amongst homeless people in big cities of the world.

Table ronde : La médecine peut-elle s’affranchir du hasard ?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 15h15 — Amphi Jean-Fourastié

Yann Le Coq Yann Le Coq
Research Engineer

Engineer SupOptique and Doctor in Physics, Yann Le Coq is a Research Engineer at CNRS. He works at the LNE-SYRTE laboratory located at Paris Observatory, where he studies and develops with his colleagues the next generations of atomic clocks. These are based on frequency references from hyper-netroite atomic transitions in the optical domain, and use laser-cooled and trapped atoms. His work focuses more specifically on ultra-stable lasers and frequency combs, essential components of these optical atomic clocks. Since 2018, he has been leading the Laboratory of Excellence and the FIRST-TF Research Federation, a national networked structure strong of 25 academic laboratories and more than sixty industrials, which focuses on coordinating R&D activities in France in the Time-Frequency domain.

Conférence : Can we live with chance and uncertainty in the measurement of time?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 17h30 - 18h15 — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

The measurement of the flow of time is one of the domains where modern science and technology excel the most: the best atomic clocks reach today accuracies to the 18th decimal place, that is to say the equivalent of less than one second of error on the age of the universe (if such a clock could have been in operation since the big bang...). However, the randomness and uncertainty inherent to any measurement (whether technological or fundamental - imposed in particular by the laws of quantum physics) inevitably lead after a certain time to a desynchronization - even between the best clocks - with potentially dramatic consequences (telecoms networks, infrastructures, transport, satellite navigation, etc.). I will present the concepts and issues underlying these questions, and explain how we can live - and how humanity lives, without often realizing it - with the consequences of chance and uncertainty in the measurement of time.

Yasmine Grasser Yasmine Grasser

Yasmine Grasser is a psychoanalyst and member of the École de la Cause freudienne (ECF), where she teaches at the Section clinique-Île-de-France. She created a consultation for toddlers and their families(2005). Her works concern the psychoanalyst formation and the effects of language on the body inside of psychoanalytic experience. She has published particularly : “What transmission ?”, Envers de Paris review, Horizon n°72, 2020 ; “What do the children know ?”, site, 2019 ; “Let the body say itself”, ECF review La Cause du désir, n°86, 2014, diffused by Cairn. About Art : “Learning from painting”, Blog J47, site ECF, 2017; “Letters paths”, Post Museum, Paris, 1994.

Conférence : How is chance irreducible?
Saturday 3 july 2021, 15h15 - 16h — Amphi Jean-Prouvé

There is in chance the idea of something ineliminable, dreaded, insisting, which, enables signification, shows up to today the incompleteness of an established knowledge – a hole - which solicits the subversion of traditions for breeding newness. The landscape painter, William Turner, provides an overview on it. I paint what I see, but not what I know, he said. This singular “gaze”, if it provoked the taunts of colleagues, determined him to break free from classicism in order to paint what was imposed on him as a never-seen-light before. This new violent irreducible knowledge isolated him, but chance didn’t allow his ”gaze” to be an accident in the art history. The art critic and poet, John Ruskin, was able to see the intelligible in what the artist saw, giving resonance to ideas that reverberated from Marcel Proust through the 1960s, when Turner’s paintings left the Tate Gallery for a worldwide exhibition, till today with art historian Pierre Watt’s book shedding light on the Turnerian myth. In between, from his practice, the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, instructed us about the stain function: “pure presence”, the “gaze” calling his gazer. With colour, the stain irrupts in a Turner painting, a dazzling light making a hole in the landscape, so that by contingency, the artist’s “gaze” becomes symptom of the social sphere.